Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 up-regulation after simian immunodeficiency virus-1 coinfection in the nonhuman primate
ABSTRACT The effects that human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) coinfection have on HTLV-1 dynamics and disease progression were tested in a nonhuman primate model. Seven rhesus macaques were experimentally inoculated with HTLV-1, and a persistent infection was established. Coinfection with SIV/smB670 resulted in increased HTLV-1 p19 antigens in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HTLV-1 proviral loads. Circulating CD2(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased over preinoculation levels, along with a progressive decrease in CD4(+) T cells, typical for terminal SIV disease. Finally documented was the striking emergence of up to 19% of HTLV-associated "flower cell" lymphocytes in the circulation, as seen in patients with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma. CD8(+)CD25(+) T cell subpopulation increases were positively correlated with flower cell appearance and suggested their possible role in this process. We conclude that SIV may have the potential to up-regulate HTLV-1 and disease expression.
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ABSTRACT: Mandrills are naturally infected with simian T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mnd. In humans, dual infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) may worsen their clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of co-infection in mandrills on viral burden, changes in T-cell subsets and clinical outcome. The SIV viral load was higher in SIV-infected mandrills than in co-infected animals, whereas the STLV-1 proviral load was higher in co-infected than in mono-infected groups. Dually infected mandrills had a statistically significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count, a lower proportion of naive CD8+ T cells and a higher proportion of central memory cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from SIV-infected animals had a lower percentage of Ki67 than those from the other groups. Co-infected monkeys had higher percentages of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Two co-infected mandrills with high immune activation and clonal integration of STLV provirus showed pathological manifestations (infective dermatitis and generalised scabies) rarely encountered in nonhuman primates.Virology 04/2014; s 454–455:184–196. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.02.019 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coinfection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been reported to have either a slowed disease course or to have no effect on progression to AIDS. In this study, we generated a coinfection animal model and investigated whether HTLV-2 could persistently infect macaques, induce a T-cell response, and impact simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251)-induced disease. We found that inoculation of irradiated HTLV-2-infected T cells into Indian rhesus macaques elicited humoral and T-cell responses to HTLV-2 antigens at both systemic and mucosal sites. Low levels of HTLV-2 provirus DNA were detected in the blood, lymphoid tissues, and gastrointestinal tracts of infected animals. Exposure of HTLV-2-infected or naïve macaques to SIV(mac251) demonstrated comparable levels of SIV(mac251) viral replication, similar rates of mucosal and peripheral CD4(+) T-cell loss, and increased T-cell proliferation. Additionally, neither the magnitude nor the functional capacity of the SIV-specific T-cell-mediated immune response was different in HTLV-2/SIV(mac251) coinfected animals versus SIV(mac251) singly infected controls. Thus, HTLV-2 targets mucosal sites, persists, and importantly does not exacerbate SIV(mac251) infection. These data provide the impetus for the development of an attenuated HTLV-2-based vectored vaccine for HIV-1; this approach could elicit persistent mucosal immunity that may prevent HIV-1/SIV(mac251) infection.Journal of Virology 03/2010; 84(6):3043-58. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01655-09 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The infection dynamics and pathology of a retrovirus may be altered by one or more additional virus(es). To investigate this we characterised proviral load, biodistribution and the immune response in Macaca fascicularis naturally-infected with combinations of SRV-2 and STLV-I. Since the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and the spleen have been previously implicated in response to retroviral infection, the morphology and immunopathology of these tissues were assessed. Our data revealed a significant change in SRV-2 biodistribution in macaques infected with STLV-I. Pathological changes were greater in the MLN and spleen of STLV-I infected and co-infected macaques, compared with the other groups. Immune cell populations in co-infected macaque spleens were increased and there was an atypical distribution of B-cells. These findings suggest that the infection dynamics of each virus in a co-infected individual may be affected to a different extent and that STLV-I appears to be responsible for enhancing the biodistribution and associated pathological changes of SRV-2 in macaques.Journal of General Virology 11/2012; DOI:10.1099/vir.0.046078-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor