Decreased tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil involves COX-2 and PGE2 reduction associated with apoptosis and increased peroxidation

Department of Physiology, University Federal of Paraná, Biological Science Building, 81530-990, Curitiba, Brazil.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (Impact Factor: 2.35). 03/2007; 76(2):113-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2006.11.008
Source: PubMed


Many studies have shown that addition of fish oil (FO) to the diet reduces tumor growth but the mechanism(s) of action involved is (are) still unknown. In this study, we examine some possible mechanisms in tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with FO. Male Wistar rats (21 days old) were fed with regular chow and supplemented with coconut or FO (1g/kg body weight) until they reached 70 days of age. Then, they were inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (2 x 10(7)ml) and after 14 days they were killed. Supplementation with FO resulted in significantly lower tumor weight, greater tumor cell apoptosis, lower ex vivo tumor cell proliferation, a higher tumor content of lipid peroxides, lower expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tumor tissue and a lower plasma concentration of prostaglandin E2 than observed in rats fed regular chow or supplemented with coconut oil. These results suggest that reduction of tumor growth by FO involves an increase in apoptosis and of lipid peroxidation in tumor tissue, with a reduction in tumor cell proliferation ex vivo, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Thus, FO may act simultaneously through multiple effects to reduce tumor growth. Whether these effects are connected through a single underlying mechanism remains to be seen.

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    • "The role of diet in cancer development has been extensively studied in the last years [1,4-7,12,15]. It has been advocated that 30–40% of cancers may be prevented by appropriated diets, physical activity, and maintenance of body weight [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Shark liver oil (SLOil) and fish oil (FOil), which are respectively rich in alkylglycerols (AKGs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are able to reduce the growth of some tumors and the burden of cachexia. It is known that FOil is able to reduce proliferation rate and increase apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation of tumor cells efficiently. However, there are few reports revealing the influence of SLOil on these parameters. In the current study, effects of FOil chronic supplementation on tumor growth and cachexia were taken as reference to compare the results obtained with SLOil supplementation. Also, we evaluated if the association of SLOil and FOil was able to promote additive effects. Weanling male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: fed regular chow (C), supplemented (1g/kg body weight) with SLOil (CSLO), FOil (CFO) and both (CSLO + FO). After 8 weeks half of each group was inoculated with Walker 256 cells originating new groups (W, WSLO, WFO and WSLO + FO). Biochemical parameters of cachexia, tumor weight, hydroperoxide content, proliferation rate and percentage of apoptotic tumor cells were analysed. Fatty acids and AKG composition of tumor and oils were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Tukey test. Fourteen days after inoculation, SLOil was able to restore cachexia parameters to control levels, similarly to FOil. WSLO rats presented significantly lower tumor weight (40%), greater tumor cell apoptosis (~3-fold), decreased tumor cell proliferation (35%), and higher tumor content of lipid hydroperoxides (40%) than observed in W rats, but FOil showed more potent effects. Supplementation with SLOil + FOil did not promote additive effects. Additionally, chromatographic results suggested a potential incorporation competition between the n-3 fatty acids and the AKGs in the tumor cells' membranes. SLOil is another marine source of lipids with similar FOil anti-cachectic capacity. Furthermore, despite being less potent than FOil, SLOil presented significant in vivo antitumor effects. These results suggest that the chronic supplementation with SLOil may be adjuvant of the anti-cancer therapy.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2013; 12(1):146. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-146 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Our previous research demonstrated that FO supplementation decreases tumor growth and cancer cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats (4-6). Several mechanisms for suppression of tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats by n-3 PUFA have been proposed. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) supplementation on tumor growth, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and RelA gene and protein expression in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Male Wistar rats (70 days old) were fed with regular chow (group W) or chow supplemented with 1 g/kg body weight FO daily (group WFO) until they reached 100 days of age. Both groups were then inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (3×107 cells/mL). After 14 days the rats were killed, total RNA was isolated from the tumor tissue, and relative mRNA expression was measured using the 2-ΔΔCT method. FO significantly decreased tumor growth (W=13.18±1.58 vs WFO=5.40±0.88 g, P<0.05). FO supplementation also resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 (W=100.1±1.62 vs WFO=59.39±5.53, P<0.001) and PPARγ (W=100.4±1.04 vs WFO=88.22±1.46, P<0.05) protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was W=1.06±0.022 vs WFO=0.31±0.04 (P<0.001) for COX-2, W=1.08±0.02 vs WFO=0.52±0.08 (P<0.001) for PPARγ, and W=1.04±0.02 vs WFO=0.82±0.04 (P<0.05) for RelA. FO reduced tumor growth by attenuating inflammatory gene expression associated with carcinogenesis.
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 08/2013; 46(8):696-9. DOI:10.1590/1414-431X20132970 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, ω-3 fatty acids could help in the treatment of neoplasms by acting on the production of lipid mediators with attenuated inflammatory activity or acting at the resolution phase of the inflammatory process(4), on the expression of COX-2 enzyme with consequent inhibition of PGE2(11), and in the production of cytokines as well as transcription factors(19,20). "
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    ABSTRACT: The development of leukemia and lymphomas is related to the increase in inflammatory process modulators. These, in turn, have divergent actions on the neoplastic process. Populations of T cells have different roles in the neoplastic environment; while interferon-gamma positive T cells have antitumor activity, the FoxP3+interleukin-10 positive population present a pro-tumor activity. Simultaneously, the inflammatory process promotes the mobilization of fatty acids from the cell membrane to produce lipid mediators, which also participate of the inflammatory response. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) omega-3 fatty acids, when incorporated in the plasmatic membrane, decrease the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and the production of eicosanoids derived from it. Thus, an alternative family of lipid mediators are produced that are often less inflammatory than those produced from arachidonic acid. Fatty acids can also influence the production of peptide mediators such as cytokines, and the expression of transcription factors, which can determine the production patterns of eicosanoids and cytokines as well as cell differentiation. Due to these properties, the objective of this literature review was to investigate studies published over the last 15 years on the effects of using omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory markers in leukemia and lymphomas.
    Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 03/2013; 35(2):119-25. DOI:10.5581/1516-8484.20130033
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