The effect of spinal anesthesia on blood transfusion rate in total joint arthroplasty

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie (Impact Factor: 1.51). 01/2007; 49(6):391-6.
Source: PubMed


Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) patients often receive allogeneic blood transfusion. The use of regional anesthesia (RA) is thought to protect against the need for blood transfusion, but many randomized trials of RA in TJA have not reached this conclusion unanimously. We sought to describe the effect of RA on allogeneic transfusion in a large retrospective TJA series.
We examined data from all TJAs performed in Edmonton, Alberta, in the year 2000 (n = 1875) and used logistic regression modelling to determine the relation between the use of RA and allogeneic transfusion.
Twenty-eight percent of TJA subjects received an allogeneic transfusion. Transfusion was independently associated with increasing age, decreasing body mass, decreasing preoperative hemoglobin, female sex, increased comorbidity and prolonged operative time. After controlling for these factors, we found that the use of RA (in the form of spinal anesthesia) compared with general anesthesia reduced the odds ratio (OR) for transfusion to 0.729 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.559-0.949). This represents the combination of a strong relation between RA and transfusion prevention in hip arthroplasty (OR 0.646, 95% CI 0.443-0.944) and a nonsignificant relation in knee arthroplasty (OR 0.825, 95% CI 0.564-1.208).
The use of spinal anesthesia protects against allogeneic transfusion in arthroplasty of the hip but not the knee. This is consistent with what is known about the hemodynamic consequences of spinal anesthesia.

6 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of a preoperative protocol that triages patients awaiting total joint arthroplasty to one of four strategies designed to mitigate the risk of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) based on a priori transfusion risk on perioperative exposure to allogeneic blood. We compared the transfusion experiences of a historical control series of 160 subjects with a study group of 160 subjects treated by protocol. Protocol subjects with hemoglobin (Hb) 100-129 g.L(-1) were given erythropoietin, dosed by weight. Subjects with Hb 130-139 g.L(-1) underwent preoperative autologous blood harvest and perioperative re-infusion as deemed clinically necessary. Subjects with Hb >139 g.L(-1) received no special intervention, unless they were aged >70 yr and weighed < 70 kg, in which case they received oral iron and folate supplementation. The relative risk of ABT in the Study group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.85). The Control group received 104 units of allogeneic blood and the Study group received 35 units (P = 0.0007). These differences cannot be explained by differences in transfusion risk or autologous units transfused. There was no worsening of anemia or its consequences in the Study group. A simple protocol based on easily obtained preoperative clinical indices effectively targets interventions that mitigate the risk of ABT.
    Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal 04/2010; 57(4):343-9. DOI:10.1007/s12630-010-9270-z · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preoperative anaemia is associated with adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery but outcomes after non-cardiac surgery are not well established. We aimed to assess the effect of preoperative anaemia on 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. We analysed data for patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery in 2008 from The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (a prospective validated outcomes registry from 211 hospitals worldwide in 2008). We obtained anonymised data for 30-day mortality and morbidity (cardiac, respiratory, CNS, urinary tract, wound, sepsis, and venous thromboembolism outcomes), demographics, and preoperative and perioperative risk factors. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the adjusted and modified (nine predefined risk factor subgroups) effect of anaemia, which was defined as mild (haematocrit concentration >29-<39% in men and >29-<36% in women) or moderate-to-severe (≤29% in men and women) on postoperative outcomes. We obtained data for 227,425 patients, of whom 69,229 (30·44%) had preoperative anaemia. After adjustment, postoperative mortality at 30 days was higher in patients with anaemia than in those without anaemia (odds ratio [OR] 1·42, 95% CI 1·31-1·54); this difference was consistent in mild anaemia (1·41, 1·30-1·53) and moderate-to-severe anaemia (1·44, 1·29-1·60). Composite postoperative morbidity at 30 days was also higher in patients with anaemia than in those without anaemia (adjusted OR 1·35, 1·30-1·40), again consistent in patients with mild anaemia (1·31, 1·26-1·36) and moderate-to-severe anaemia (1·56, 1·47-1·66). When compared with patients without anaemia or a defined risk factor, patients with anaemia and most risk factors had a higher adjusted OR for 30-day mortality and morbidity than did patients with either anaemia or the risk factor alone. Preoperative anaemia, even to a mild degree, is independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Vifor Pharma.
    The Lancet 10/2011; 378(9800):1396-407. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61381-0 · 45.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify studies that have validated administrative and claims database algorithms for identifying patients with orthopedic device revision or removal. As a part of the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel pilot program, we performed a systematic review to identify algorithms for orthopedic implant removal/revision in administrative and claims databases in the USA or Canada. Five studies examined the validity of database algorithms against a gold standard of documentation in medical records (n = 3) or codes/documentation in another database (n = 2). The positive predictive values (PPV) of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) and/or the Current Procedural Terminology codes for revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the US Medicare population compared with medical record review were 92%and 91%, respectively. In another study of the US Medicare population, multiple ICD-9 codes for revision total knee arthroplasty were compared with newly available single ICD-9-CM codes for revision knee arthroplasty; sensitivity was 87% and specificity was 99% (PPV not provided). The fourth study validated the ICD-9-CM codes for revision total knee arthroplasty against Ontario health insurance physician fee service claims as the gold standard and found a PPV of 32%. In the last study in Medicare population, the accuracy of the attribution of revision THA to the same side as the earlier index primary THA was examined; PPV for same laterality of revision THA was 71% (using ICD-9-CM codes). Validation data, with regard to the ICD-9-CM or the Current Procedural Terminology code algorithms for revision THA in the Medicare population, exist. More validation studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine other large databases.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 01/2012; 21 Suppl 1:265-73. DOI:10.1002/pds.2309 · 2.94 Impact Factor
Show more


6 Reads
Available from