Gene delivery by cationic lipids: In and out of an endosome
ABSTRACT Cationic lipids are exploited as vectors ('lipoplexes') for delivering nucleic acids, including genes, into cells for both therapeutic and cell biological purposes. However, to meet therapeutic requirements, their efficacy needs major improvement, and better defining the mechanism of entry in relation to eventual transfection efficiency could be part of such a strategy. Endocytosis is the major pathway of entry, but the relative contribution of distinct endocytic pathways, including clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis and/or macropinocytosis is as yet poorly defined. Escape of DNA/RNA from endosomal compartments is thought to represent a major obstacle. Evidence is accumulating that non-lamellar phase changes of the lipoplexes, facilitated by intracellular lipids, which allow DNA to dissociate from the vector and destabilize endosomal membranes, are instrumental in plasmid translocation into the cytosol, a prerequisite for nuclear delivery. To further clarify molecular mechanisms and to appreciate and overcome intracellular hurdles in lipoplex-mediated gene delivery, quantification of distinct steps in overall transfection and proper model systems are required.
- SourceAvailable from: Seyed Amir Jalali[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection. First generation Leishmania vaccines consisting of whole killed parasites reached to phase 3 clinical trials but failed to show enough efficacies mainly due to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, an efficient liposomal protein-based vaccine against Leishmania major infection was developed using soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) as a first generation vaccine and cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane was used as a cationic lipid to prepare the liposomes due to its intrinsic adjuvanticity. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously (SC), three times in 2-week intervals, with Lip-SLA-CpG, Lip-SLA, SLA + CpG, SLA, or HEPES buffer. As criteria for protection, footpad swelling at the site of challenge and spleen parasite loads were assessed, and the immune responses were evaluated by determination of IFN-γ and IL-4 levels of cultured splenocytes, and IgG subtypes. The group of mice that received Lip-SLA-CpG showed a significantly smaller footpad swelling, lower spleen parasite burden, higher IgG2a antibody, and lower IL-4 level compared to the control groups. It is concluded that cationic liposomes containing SLA and CpG ODNs are appropriate to induce Th1 type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis.Parasitology Research 01/2012; 111(1):105-14. DOI:10.1007/s00436-011-2806-5 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cationic liposomes have been proposed as biocompatible gene delivery vectors, able to overcome the barriers imposed by cell membranes. Besides lipids, other surfactant molecules have been successfully used in the composition of gene carriers. In the present work, we used a Gemini surfactant, represented by the general structure [C(14)H(29)(CH(3))(2)N(+)(CH(2))(2)N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(14)H(29)]2Br(-) and herein designated 14-2-14, to prepare cationic gene carriers, both as the sole component and in combination with neutral helper lipids, cholesterol and DOPE. The effectiveness of three Gemini-based formulations, namely neat 14-2-14, 14-2-14:Chol (1:1 molar ratio) and 14-2-14:Chol:DOPE (2:1:1 molar ratio), to mediate gene delivery was evaluated in DNA mixtures of +/- charge ratios ranging from 1/1 to 12/1. After ruling out cytotoxicity as responsible for the differences observed in the transfection competence, structural and physical properties of the vector were investigated, using several techniques. The size and surface charge density (zeta potential) of surfactant-based structures were determined by conventional techniques and the thermotropic behaviour of aqueous dispersions of surfactant/lipid/DNA formulations was monitored by fluorescence polarization of DPH and DPH-PA probes. The capacity of lipoplexes to interact with membrane-mimicking lipid bilayers was evaluated, using the PicoGreen assay and a FRET technique. Our data indicate inefficiency of the neat 14-2-14 formulation for gene delivery, which could result from the large dimensions of the particles and/or from its relative incompetence to release DNA upon interaction with anionic lipids. The addition of cholesterol or cholesterol and DOPE conferred to Gemini-based gene carrier transfection activity at specific ranges of +/- charge ratios. Fluorescence polarization data suggest that an order parameter within a specific range was apparently needed for complexes to display maximal transfection efficiency. The transfection-competent formulations showed to be efficiently destabilized by interaction with different anionic and zwitterionic bilayers, including those containing PS and cardiolipin. These data are discussed in terms of the potential of these formulations to address different intracellular targets.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2010; 1808(1):341-51. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2010.09.026 · 4.66 Impact Factor
- Journal of Controlled Release 01/2010; 141:241-251. · 7.26 Impact Factor