Adenovirus transduction is required for the correction of diabetes using Pdx-1 or Neurogenin-3 in the liver.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Molecular Therapy (Impact Factor: 6.43). 03/2007; 15(2):255-63. DOI: 10.1038/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The regeneration of insulin-producing cells in vivo has emerged as a promising method for treating type I diabetes. Pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx-1), NeuroD, and Neurogenin-3 (Ngn3) are pancreatic transcription factors important for the development of insulin-producing cells in the liver. Other groups have demonstrated that adenoviral-mediated transgene expression of these transcription factors in the liver can reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. We delivered Pdx-1 and Ngn3 to the livers of diabetic mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8, a vector that has been shown to result in non-toxic, persistent, high level expression of the transgene. We were unable to correct hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes using AAV vectors expressing Pdx-1 and Ngn3. However, when we co-delivered these transcription factor expression cassettes in non-viral vectors with an irrelevant adenoviral vector, we were able to correct hyperglycemia in diabetic animals. Further studies demonstrated that an antigen-dependent immune response elicited by the adenoviral capsid together with the expression of a pancreatic transcription factor was required for restoration of serum insulin levels by the liver. Our results suggest that a host response to adenovirus in combination with expression of a pro-endocrine pancreas transcription factor is sufficient to induce insulin production in the livers of diabetic mice.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In our previous studies, colony-forming progenitor cells isolated from murine embryonic stem cell-derived cultures were differentiated into morphologically distinct insulin-expressing colonies. These colonies were small and not light-reflective when observed by phase-contrast microscopy (therefore termed "Dark" colonies). A single progenitor cell capable of giving rise to a Dark colony was termed a Dark colony-forming unit (CFU-Dark). The goal of the current study was to test whether endogenous pancreas, and its developmentally related liver, harbored CFU-Dark. Here we show that dissociated single cells from liver and pancreas of one-week-old mice give rise to Dark colonies in methylcellulose-based semisolid culture media containing either Matrigel or laminin hydrogel (an artificial extracellular matrix protein). CFU-Dark comprise approximately 0.1% and 0.03% of the postnatal hepatic and pancreatic cells, respectively. Adult liver also contains CFU-Dark, but at a much lower frequency (~0.003%). Microfluidic qRT-PCR, immunostaining, and electron microscopy analyses of individually handpicked colonies reveal the expression of insulin in many, but not all, Dark colonies. Most pancreatic insulin-positive Dark colonies also express glucagon, whereas liver colonies do not. Liver CFU-Dark require Matrigel, but not laminin hydrogel, to become insulin-positive. In contrast, laminin hydrogel is sufficient to support the development of pancreatic Dark colonies that express insulin. Postnatal liver CFU-Dark display a cell surface marker CD133+CD49flowCD107blow phenotype, while pancreatic CFU-Dark are CD133-. Together, these results demonstrate that specific progenitor cells in the postnatal liver and pancreas are capable of developing into insulin-expressing colonies, but they differ in frequency, marker expression, and matrix protein requirements for growth.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2014; 11(1):35-50. DOI:10.1900/RDS.2014.11.35
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vital organs such as the pancreas and the brain lack the capacity for effective regeneration. To overcome this limitation, an emerging strategy consists of converting resident tissue-specific cells into the cell types that are lost due to disease by a process called in vivo lineage reprogramming. Here we discuss recent breakthroughs in regenerating pancreatic β-cells and neurons from various cell types, and highlight fundamental challenges that need to be overcome for the translation of in vivo lineage reprogramming into therapy.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The direct conversion of one cell type to another without an intermediate pluripotent stage is required for regenerative therapies. The ventral pancreas and liver share a common developmental origin. Recent studies have shown that hepatocytes could be induced to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells. In this paper, we showed a new strategy to achieve the direct conversion of human hepatocytes into surrogate β cells. Hepatocytes were transfected with microRNA-302 (miR-302) mimic and Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA expressed plasmids, followed by a chemical-defined culture system for maturation of insulin-secreting cells. Co-transfection of miR-302 mimic increased the transcription of pancreatic development-related genes (Sox17, Foxa2, and endogenous Pdx1). Furthermore, at the end of this treatment, hepatocytes became insulin expressed cells that released the hormone in response to a physiological glucose change in vitro. This work shows that miR-302 participation may facilitates the conversion of adult hepatocytes into pancreatic islets-like cells.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.09.095 · 2.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014