Deletion of chromosome 11q predicts response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy in early breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Despite the recent consensus on the eligibility of adjuvant systemic therapy in patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer (NNBC) based on clinicopathologic criteria, specific biological markers are needed to predict sensitivity to the different available therapeutic options. We examined the feasibility of developing a genomic predictor of chemotherapy response and recurrence risk in 185 patients with NNBC using assembled arrays containing 2,460 bacterial artificial chromosome clones for scanning the genome for DNA copy number changes. After surgery, 90 patients received anthracycline-based chemotherapy, whereas 95 did not. Tamoxifen was administered to patients with hormone receptor-positive tumors. The association of genomic and clinicopathologic data and outcome was computed using Cox proportional hazard models and multiple testing adjustment procedures. Analysis of NNBC genomes revealed a common genomic signature. Specific DNA copy number aberrations were associated with hormonal receptor status, but not with other clinicopathologic variables. In patients treated with chemotherapy, none of the genomic changes were significantly correlated with recurrence. In patients not receiving chemotherapy, deletion of eight bacterial artificial chromosome clones clustered to chromosome 11q was independently associated with relapse (disease-free survival at 10 years+/-SE, 40%+/-14% versus 86%+/-6%; P<0.0001). The 54 patients with deletion of 11q (29%) did not present more aggressive clinicopathologic features than those without 11q loss. The adverse influence of 11q deletion on clinical outcome was confirmed in an independent validation series of 88 patients with NNBC. Our data suggests that patients with NNBC with the 11q deletion might benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy despite other clinical, pathologic, or genetic features. However, these initial findings should be evaluated in randomized clinical trials.
- SourceAvailable from: Marta Gromicho
Dataset: Genomics and Cancer Drug Resistance
Article: Genomics and cancer drug resistance.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cellular drug resistance is a major obstacle in cancer therapy. Mechanisms of resistance can be associated with altered expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters on cell membrane transporters, the most common cause of multi-drug resistance (MDR), but can also include alterations of DNA repair pathways, resistance to apoptosis and target modifications. Anti-cancer treatments may be divided into different categories based on their purpose and action: chemotherapeutic agents damage and kill dividing cells; hormonal treatments prevent cancer cells from receiving signals essential for their growth; targeted drugs are a relatively new cancer treatment that targets specific proteins and pathways that are limited primarily to cancer cells or that are much more prevalent in cancer cells; and antibodies function by either depriving the cancer cells of necessary signals or by causing their direct death. In any case, resistance to anticancer therapies leads to poor prognosis of patients. Thus, identification of novel molecular targets is critical in development of new, efficient and specific cancer drugs. The aim of this review is to describe the impact of genomics in studying some of the most critical pathways involved in cancer drug resistance and in improving drug development. We shall also focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, as key gene expression regulators, in drug resistance. Finally, we shall address the specific mechanisms involved in resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia.Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 10/2011; 13(5):651-73. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which play important regulatory roles in physiological processes such as cellular differentiation, proliferation, development, apoptosis and stem cell self-renewal. An increasing number of papers have clearly claimed their involvement in cancer, providing, in some cases, also the molecular mechanisms implicated. Several studies led to the conclusion that miRNAs can be effectively used as anticancer agents alone or in combination with existing anticancer drugs. In particular, miRNAs can be effectively used to overcome drug resistance, one of the main factors responsible for anticancer treatment insuccess. One of the main questions remains how to modulate the expression of miRNAs in cancer cells. Interestingly, a few studies have shown that the expression of miRNAs is affected by drugs (including some drugs currently used as anticancer agents), therefore providing the rationale for an intertwined scenario in which miRNAs can be modulated by drugs and, in turn, can affect drug sensitivity of cancer cells. KeywordsmiRNAs–cancer–multidrug resistance–transcription factor–chemotherapy10/2011; 6(5):351-356. DOI:10.1007/s11515-011-1115-9