Histogenesis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: Evidence for a common clonal origin with divergent differentiation
ABSTRACT The histogenesis of sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma, a rare neoplasm with bidirectional epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation, has been a matter of controversy. To clarify its origin, we analysed the status of X-chromosome inactivation in sarcomatoid urothelial carcinomas from 10 female patients and examined losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in these specimens and in additional 20 tumours from male patients. Six polymorphic microsatellite markers where genetic alterations occur frequently in early or advanced stages of urothelial carcinomas, including D3S3050, D8S261, IFNA, D9S177, D11S569 and TP53, were investigated in the current study. The identical pattern of non-random X-chromosome inactivation in both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components was identified in five of eight informative female patients, and the remaining three informative cases showed a random, but concordant, pattern of X-chromosome inactivation. The concordant X-chromosome inactivation results in all eight informative cases support the concept of a monoclonal origin of both components of this biphasic neoplasm. Among the tumours demonstrating loss of heterozygosity, high incidences of an identical pattern of allelic loss between carcinomatous and sarcomatous components were identified in genetic alterations associated with early carcinogenesis: 86% at D8S261, 78% at D11S569, 75% at D9S177 and 57% at IFNA. In contrast, concordant LOH patterns were less frequently observed for microsatellites related to advanced carcinogenesis: only 40% at D3S3050 and 40% at TP53. The significant overlap of loss of heterozygosity supports a monoclonal cell origin and suggests that clonal divergence may occur during tumour progression and differentiation. Divergent patterns of discordant allelic loss of microsatellite markers imply that heterogeneous pathogenetic pathways may exist in the evolution of this enigmatic neoplasm.
- SourceAvailable from: Mustafa Yıldırım
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- "It is thought that both diagnostic categories are variations of the same neoplastic transformation. Recently performed molecular investigations suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal components seen in these tumors are of monoclonal origin (Sung et al., 2007). According to the latest classification of the World Health Organization (WHO), sarcomatoid carcinomas and carcinosarcomas are regarded as the same entity, and these heterogenous biphasic tumors are classified as sarcomatoid carcinomas (Table 2) (Eble et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: This study aimed to present the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment of patients with bladder carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation at our institution. Methods: Between 1995- 2009, 950 patients were followed-up for bladder carcinoma. Among them, 14 patients with sarcomatoid carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed, and their clinical, pathological features and treatment were recorded. Results: Median age of the patients was 65 years (range: 41-86 years), 12 (86%) being male and 2 (14%) female. All the patients presented with hematuria and 11 (88%) had a history of smoking. The tumor growth pattern was solid in 10 patients, papillary in 2, and mixed in 2. In all, 5 of the patients had urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation and 9 were diagnosed with sarcomatoid carcinoma. Five patients underwent radical cystectomy with ileal conduit surgery, 2 patients refused cystectomy, and 8 patients underwent re-TUR. Following diagnosis ,12 of the patients died in mean 10.7 months (range: 1-48 months). Conclusion: Urothelial carcinomas with sarcomatoid features are aggressive and are usually at advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The outcomes of multimodal treatment are not satisfactory. Significant findings of the present study are that early diagnosis positively affect survival and that gemcitabine and cisplatin in combination can positively affect survival.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 11/2012; 13(11):5729-33. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5729 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The advent of new technologies has enabled deeper insight into processes at subcellular levels, which will ultimately improve diagnostic procedures and patient outcome. Thanks to cell enrichment methods, it is now possible to study cells in their native environment. This has greatly contributed to a rapid growth in several areas, such as gene expression analysis, proteomics, and metabolonomics. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) as a method of procuring subpopulations of cells under direct visual inspection is playing an important role in these areas. This review provides an overview of existing LCM technology and its downstream applications in genomics, proteomics, diagnostics and therapy.
- Ground Penetrating Radar, 2004. GPR 2004. Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on; 02/2004