Treatment of the adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction at a single institution in Mexico.
ABSTRACT Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is rapidly increasing in the west. Our aim is to define the prognostic factors and treatment of EGJ carcinoma in Mexico, particularly the location after the Siewert's classification.
A retrospective cohort of patients suffering from EGJ adenocarcinoma treated from 1987 to 2000. The Kaplan-Meier and the Cox's models were used to define prognostic factors.
Two hundred and thirty-four patients were included, 90 females and 144 males. Surgical resection was possible in 68 cases only (29%). Significant prognostic factors were tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage [stages I-II: risk ratio (RR) is 1; stage III RR is 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-2.4; stage IV RR, 2.04, 95% CI 1.1-3.7], gender (male RR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.05), metastatic lymph node ratio (no resection: RR = 1; ratio 0.2-1 RR=0.67, 95% CI 0.39-1.14; ratio 0-0.19 RR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.76) and seralbumin (3 mg/dL or less RR = 2.05 95% CI 1.3-3.2; 3.1-3.4 mg/dL RR = 1.9 95% CI 1.2-3.03; 3.5-3.8 mg/dL RR = 1.3 95% CI 0.8-1.9; 3.9 mg/dL or more: RR = 1) (model P = 0.0001).
EGJ adenocarcinoma is a highly lethal neoplasia and the location after the Siewert' classification is not a prognostic factor. In Mexico, TNM clinical stage, serum albumin, gender, surgical resection and metastatic lymph node ratio are significant prognostic factors. Curative treatment is infrequent but radical resection is associated to longer survival. Consequently, the management must consider quality of life and surgical morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: Categorizing prognostic variables is essential for their use in clinical decision-making. Often a single cutpoint that stratifies patients into high-risk and low-risk categories is sought. These categories may be used for making treatment recommendations, determining study eligibility, or to control for varying patient prognoses in the design of a clinical trial. Methods used to categorize variables include: biological determination (most desirable but often unavailable); arbitrary selection of a cutpoint at the median value; graphical examination of the data for a threshold effect; and exploration of all observed values for the one which best separates the risk groups according to a chi-squared test. The last method, called the minimum p-value approach, involves multiple testing which inflates the type I error rates. Several methods for adjusting the inflated p-values have been proposed but remain infrequently used. Exploratory methods for categorization and the minimum p-value approach with its various p-value corrections are reviewed, and code for their easy implementation is provided. The combined use of these methods is recommended, and demonstrated in the context of two cancer-related examples which highlight a variety of the issues involved in the categorization of prognostic variables.Statistics in Medicine 02/2000; 19(1):113-32. · 2.04 Impact Factor
Article: Interleukin-6 in clinical medicine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article covers the basic biological functions of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in man. Three major topics are addressed more closely: the involvement of IL-6 in various disease states, particularly those of hematopoietic origin; the diagnostic usefulness of IL-6 measurements in biological fluids; the possible use of IL-6, IL-6 antagonists or IL-6 derivatives as therapeutic means.Annals of Hematology 07/1991; 62(6):203-10. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia is rising in Western countries. This study evaluates prognostic factors associated with surgical management of this cancer. Medical records of consecutive patients with gastric cardial cancer treated by surgical resection from 1991 through 2001 were reviewed. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using log-rank test and Cox regression. Mean followup period was 34 months. Eighty-two patients met study inclusion criteria. Median patient age was 65 years (range 86 to 22). Fifty-nine (72%) patients had type II tumors and 23 (28%) patients had type III tumors, according to the Siewert classification for gastroesophageal junction tumors. Twenty-seven (33%) patients underwent total esophagectomy, 24 (29%) patients underwent extended gastrectomy with thoracotomy, and 31 (38%) patients underwent extended gastrectomy without thoracotomy. Overall postoperative 5-year survival rate was 30%. On multivariate analysis, patient age 65 years and older, absence of lymph node metastasis, and R0 resection emerged as factors independently associated with improved postoperative survival. Frequency with which proximal resection margin was infiltrated with cancer was a function of gross margin length and T stage. Proximal gross margin length of at least 6 cm was required to achieve a microscopically negative proximal margin for T3 and T4 cancers. Achieving R0 resection should be the goal of surgical therapy for the gastric cardial cancer. The surgical approach should be tailored to individual patients to achieve this goal.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2005; 199(6):880-6. · 4.50 Impact Factor