Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer.

Center for Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Bioinformatics (Impact Factor: 4.62). 04/2007; 23(6):673-9. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Glimmer gene-finding software has been successfully used for finding genes in bacteria, archaea and viruses representing hundreds of species. We describe several major changes to the Glimmer system, including improved methods for identifying both coding regions and start codons. We also describe a new module of Glimmer that can distinguish host and endosymbiont DNA. This module was developed in response to the discovery that eukaryotic genome sequencing projects sometimes inadvertently capture the DNA of intracellular bacteria living in the host.
The new methods dramatically reduce the rate of false-positive predictions, while maintaining Glimmer's 99% sensitivity rate at detecting genes in most species, and they find substantially more correct start sites, as measured by comparisons to known and well-curated genes. We show that our interpolated Markov model (IMM) DNA discriminator correctly separated 99% of the sequences in a recent genome project that produced a mixture of sequences from the bacterium Prochloron didemni and its sea squirt host, Lissoclinum patella.
Glimmer is OSI Certified Open Source and available at

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Intestinal microbes play significant roles in fish and can be possibly used as probiotics in aquaculture. In our previous study, Flaviramulus ichthyoenteri Th78T, a novel species in the family Flavobacteriaceae, was isolated from fish intestine and showed strong quorum quenching (QQ) ability. To identify the QQ enzymes in Th78T and explore the potential roles of Th78T in fish intestine, we sequenced the genome of Th78T and performed extensive genomic analysis.ResultsAn N-acyl homoserine lactonase FiaL belonging to the metallo-ß-lactamase superfamily was identified and the QQ activity of heterologously expressed FiaL was confirmed in vitro. FiaL has relatively little similarity to the known lactonases (25.2¿~¿27.9% identity in amino acid sequence). Various digestive enzymes including alginate lyases and lipases can be produced by Th78T, and enzymes essential for production of B vitamins such as biotin, riboflavin and folate are predicted. Genes encoding sialic acid lyases, sialidases, sulfatases and fucosidases, which contribute to utilization of mucus, are present in the genome. In addition, genes related to response to different stresses and gliding motility were also identified. Comparative genome analysis shows that Th78T has more specific genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism compared to other two isolates in Flavobacteriaceae, both isolated from sediments.Conclusions The genome of Th78T exhibits evident advantages for this bacterium to survive in the fish intestine, including production of QQ enzyme, utilization of various nutrients available in the intestine as well as the ability to produce digestive enzymes and vitamins, which also provides an application prospect of Th78T to be used as a probiotic in aquaculture.
    BMC Genomics 02/2015; 16(1):38. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2015; · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The RAST (Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology) annotation engine was built in 2008 to annotate bacterial and archaeal genomes. It works by offering a standard software pipeline for identifying genomic features (i.e., protein-encoding genes and RNA) and annotating their functions. Recently, in order to make RAST a more useful research tool and to keep pace with advancements in bioinformatics, it has become desirable to build a version of RAST that is both customizable and extensible. In this paper, we describe the RAST tool kit (RASTtk), a modular version of RAST that enables researchers to build custom annotation pipelines. RASTtk offers a choice of software for identifying and annotating genomic features as well as the ability to add custom features to an annotation job. RASTtk also accommodates the batch submission of genomes and the ability to customize annotation protocols for batch submissions. This is the first major software restructuring of RAST since its inception.
    Scientific reports. 01/2015; 5:8365.


Available from