Article

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) : usefulness of the Apfel-score for identification of high risk patients for PONV.

Clinic for Anaesthesia, St. Josefs-Hospital Cloppenburg, Krankenhausstrasse 13, 49661 Cloppenburg, Germany.
Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica 02/2006; 57(4):361-3.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) still represent an important problem in surgery. Treatment and prevention of PONV requires accurate risk stratification. The simplified Apfel-score includes the four factors female gender, no smoking, postoperative use of opioides and previous PONV or motion-sickness in patients' history. Each of these risk factors is supposed to elevate the PONV-incidence about 20%. The aim of the study was to validate this clinical risk assessment score in patients with high risk for PONV.
In a prospective study 93 patients with high risk preoperative score for PONV (Apfel Score III and IV) were analyzed. Patients and nurses were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) as well as 6 hours and 24 hours after admission to the PACU. General anaesthesia was applied as total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with mivacurium, propofol and remifentanil (no nitrous oxide / FI 02 0.5)
In the group with Apfel score III PONV occurred in 59.7% of patients and in the Apfel score group IV in 91.3% of all patients. The incidence of PONV corresponds to the predicted values of 60% for Apfel III and 80% for Apfel IV although the use of TIVA should have reduced the incidence of PONV about 26%. This apparent overestimation could be explained by the frequent questioning of patients and nurses for PONV leading to assessment of very minor symptoms.
The Apfel-score is a useful and simple tool for stratification of patients with high risk for PONV.

1 Bookmark
 · 
453 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A number of perioperative risk factors may suppress the immune system and contribute to the development of post-operative complications. The association between surgical site infection (SSI) and other wound-related complications resulting from immunosuppression through either perioperative administration of dexamethasone, pre-operative smoking or alcohol abuse is, however, uncertain. This study was a post hoc analysis of data from the PROXI randomized trial in 1386 patients who underwent emergency or elective laparotomy. We assessed the associations of use of dexamethasone, smoking status and alcohol abuse with the primary outcome, being a composite of SSI, anastomotic leak, wound dehiscence, burst abdomen and 30-day mortality. The primary outcome occurred in 21% of patients receiving dexamethasone versus 28% of patients not receiving dexamethasone, and this was not statistically significant when adjusting for stratification variables originally used in the PROXI trial [OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.24)]. In smokers, the primary outcome occurred in 32%, compared with 23% of non-smokers (P = 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher frequency of SSI (25% vs 17%, P < 0.0001) and burst abdomen (3.8% vs 2.4%, P = 0.04). In alcohol abusers, the primary outcome occurred in 48%, compared with 25% in patients who did not abuse alcohol (P = 0.0006). Burst abdomen occurred more commonly in alcohol abusers (15% vs 2.3%, P < 0.0001). Perioperative administration of dexamethasone was not significantly associated with SSI or other wound-related complications. Conversely, smoking and alcohol abuse were both significant predictors of the primary outcome consisting of wound-related complications and mortality.
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 02/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: One of the modalities of treatment for breast cancer surgery pain is opioids, and opioids are associated with adverse effects such as itching and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Intravenous (IV) lidocaine has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and to improve overall postoperative outcomes in abdominal surgery. In this study, we tested the effect of intraoperative IV lidocaine infusion on the quality of postoperative recovery after breast cancer surgery. Methods: Seventy-one patients undergoing breast cancer surgery were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (group P; n = 34) or IV lidocaine (group L; n = 37, bolus 1.5 mg/kg at induction, then infusion at 2 mg/kg/h, stopped 2 hours after the end of surgery) in a prospective double-blind design. Intraoperative and postoperative morphine consumption was calculated. Postoperative pain scores, PONV, and fatigue were assessed at 2, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Duration of postoperative hospital stay was recorded. Results: Demographics were the same between the groups. There was no statistically significant difference in intraoperative or postoperative morphine consumption (P = 0.188 and P = 0.758) between groups. Overall pain scores either at rest or activity (P = 0.348 and P = 0.810, respectively), PONV (P = 0.350), fatigue (P = 0.758), or duration of postoperative hospital stay (P = 0.218) were not statistically different. Conclusions: Our findings did not show a significant effect of IV lidocaine during breast cancer surgery on opioid consumption, pain score, PONV, or fatigue, indicating that the benefit of this approach does not generalize across all types of surgery.
    Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 10/2014; · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A score to predict postoperative vomiting (PV) in children (POVOC score) has recently been published but has not yet undergone an external validation. We studied 673 patients (age 0-16 yr) undergoing a variety of surgical procedures (but excluding strabismus surgery, one of the risk factors according to the POVOC score) using standardized anesthesia techniques without administering antiemetics. The patients were prospectively screened for PV in the postoperative period and these incidences were compared with the predicted risk for PV according to the POVOC score. The POVOC score was evaluated with respect to its ease of use, discrimination, and calibration. Complete data to predict the risk for PV could be obtained in 95% of patients. The actual observed incidences of PV were 3.4, 11.6, 28.2, and 42.3% for the presence of 0, 1, 2, or 3 risk factors, resulting in a regression line with a slope of 0.78 and an offset of 2.37. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.68-0.76). Using the POVOC score, PV in pediatric patients can be predicted with sufficient accuracy comparable to the results in adult patients, even if one of the risk factors is not applicable.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 01/2008; 105(6):1592-7, table of contents. · 3.42 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
12 Downloads
Available from