Variation in Life Expectancy During the Twentieth Century in the United States
University of Texas School of Public Health, 8550 Datapoint, Suite 200, San Antonio 78229-3440, USA. Demography
(Impact Factor: 1.93).
12/2006; 43(4):647-57. DOI: 10.1353/dem.2006.0039
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reports life expectancy at birth (LE) for each year in the United States. Censal year estimates of LE use complete life tables. From 1900 through 1947, LEs for intercensal years were interpolated from decennial life tables and annual crude death rates. Since 1948, estimates have been computed from annual life tables. A substantial drop in variation in LE occurred in the 1940s. To evaluate these methods and examine variation without artifacts of different methods, we estimated a consistent series of both annual abridged life tables and LEs from official NCHS age-specific death rates and also LEs using the interpolation method for 1900-1998. Interpolated LEs are several times as variable as life table estimates, about 2 times as variable before 1940 and about 6.5 times as variable after 1950. Estimates of LE from annual life tables are better measures than those based on the mixed methods detailed in NCHS reports. Estimates from life tables show that the impact of the 1918 influenza pandemic on LE was much smaller than indicated by official statistics. We conclude that NCHS should report official estimates of intercensal LE for 1900-1948 computed from life tables in place of the existing LEs that were computed by interpolation.
Available from: Bruce G. Pike
- "In the Unites States of America, life expectancy increased from an average of 44.8/47.8 (men/women) years in 1900 to an average of 73.9/79.4 years in 1998 (Smith and Bradshaw, 2006), owing mainly to the development of treatments of infectious diseases and the management of cardiovascular disorders and cancers (Guyer et al., 2000). "
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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 10/2014; 11. DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.10.003 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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Biodemography and Social Biology 02/2008; 54(1):74-94. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2008.9989133 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There was a sharp, persistent drop in annual variation in life expectancy at birth in the United States between 1940 and 1950.
To evaluate the possible relationship of this drop to the introduction of antimicrobial agents, we examined standardized death
rates (SDR) and life expectancy (LE) in the United States and in England and Wales, both of which participated in the discovery
and development of antimicrobials, especially penicillin, during this period. Annual variation in life expectancy and directly
standardized death rates are measured as residuals from moving means. There were sharp drops in residual variation for males
and females starting as early as 1944 in the United States and 1951 in England and Wales that persist to the present. The
standard deviations of residuals dropped by 59–81% from before 1940 to after 1950 depending on sex, country, and SDR or LE.
The timing and persistence of reduced annual variation indicates that antimicrobials contributed substantially to the change.
Population Research and Policy Review 06/2008; 27(3):343-351. DOI:10.1007/s11113-007-9068-z · 0.76 Impact Factor
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