Amnion-Derived Pluripotent/Multipotent Stem Cells

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop, St. Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports (Impact Factor: 2.77). 02/2006; 2(2):133-42. DOI: 10.1007/s12015-006-0020-0
Source: PubMed


Amniotic epithelium is derived from the epiblast by approx 8 d after fertilization. Other parts of the placenta are derived from extraembryonic tissue. In addition to this developmental difference, amniotic epithelial (AE) cells are known to have unique characteristics, such as low level expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens, and a less restricted differentiation potential. The differentiation of the AE cells to the neural lineage is well documented. Recently, we reported that AE cells from term placenta express several stem cell surface markers that are commonly found on pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, and that in culture, AE cells differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers. In this review, we describe the unique characteristics of the AE stem cells and summarize previous work concerning the stem cell nature of cells from amnion.

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Available from: Stephen Strom,
    • "Devitalized, it has already been applied in clinics for decades for wound dressing or cornea replacement. The hAM contains epithelial and mesenchymal cells with proven stem cell properties [1] [2], and vital hAM can differentiate into lineages such as osteogenic [3], chondrogenic [4], and Schwann cell-like [5]. Moreover, hAM is immunomodulatory [2], anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic , anti-microbial and non-tumorigenic [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cells of the human amniotic membrane (hAM) have stem cell characteristics with low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties. While hAM is an excellent source for tissue engineering, so far, its sub-regions have not been taken into account. We show that placental and reflected hAM differ distinctly in morphology and functional activity, as the placental region has significantly higher mitochondrial activity, however significantly less reactive oxygen species. Since mitochondria may participate in processes such as cell rescue, we speculate that amniotic sub-regions may have different potential for tissue regeneration, which may be crucial for clinical applications.
    Placenta 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2015.08.015 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "These FSCs are characterized by having expansion potential and a lack of tumorigenicity (Marcus and Woodbury, 2008). Because placenta can be noninvasively harvested, used with few ethical reservations, and is a voluminous organ with average weights of more than 590 g, it is considered an attractive source of stem cells that can be used for cell therapy in the field of regenerative medicine (Bolisetty et al., 2002; Miki and Strom, 2006; Matikainen and Laine, 2005; Abdulrazzak et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: tBackground: Although the human placenta is considered medical wastes, it has become a main source ofstem cells. Due to their easy isolation, ability to resist immune rejection and ability to differentiate intodifferent types of adult cells, placental stem cells are considered superior to other stem cells.Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of the maternal age on the expression of mesenchymalstem cell (MSC) markers CD105 and CD29 in different areas of a term human placenta and to identify thedifferential expression of these markers in different placental areas.Subjects and methods: In this comparative cross sectional study, one hundred term placentas were col-lected after delivery from healthy mothers divided into five groups according to their age. Placentas wereprocessed to assess both immune- and gene-expression of CD105 and CD29 surface antigen markers. Dataof the different studied age groups was compared using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS)software.Results: CD105 and CD29 immunoexpression in decidua basalis, fetal membrane and placental villishowed significant negative correlations with the maternal age. CD105- and CD29-positive MSCs weresignificantly abundant in the decidua basalis and placental villi. Real-time polymerase chain reactionresults were consistent with those of the immunohistochemical study.Conclusion: Labeling the placenta-driven MSCs with the specific area from which the cells were taken aswell as the mother’s age is advised and could be helpful in controlling the quality of the cell banks as wellas the favorable outcome of the therapeutic applications.
    Tissue and Cell 01/2015; 47(2015):406-419. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    • "They also express molecules, such as E-Cadherin, CD9, CD29, CD104, CD49e, CD49f, CD49d, and CD44, among other molecules involved in cell-cell interactions and cell adhesion5,6,13,15,20 (Table 1). HAECs express transcription factors specific for pluripotential stem cells: Oct-4, Sox-2, Nanog, and Rex-1.2,5,6,8–11 In culture, these cells proliferate, showing numerous mitotic events, and form a confluent single layer with typical cobblestone epithelial morphology.2,3,5,6,8–11 "
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial and mesenchymal cells isolated from the amniotic membrane (AM) possess stem cell characteristics, differentiation potential toward lineages of different germ layers, and immunomodulatory properties. While their expansion and differentiation potential have been well studied and characterized, knowledge about their immunomodulatory properties and the mechanisms involved is still incomplete. These mechanisms have been evaluated on various target cells of the innate and the adaptive system and in animal models of different inflammatory diseases. Some results have evidenced that the immunomodulatory effect of AM-derived cells is dependent on cell-cell contact, but many of them have demonstrated that these properties are mediated through the secretion of suppressive molecules. In this review, we present an update on the described immunomodulatory properties of the derived amniotic cells and some of the proposed involved mechanisms. Furthermore, we describe some assays in animal models of different inflammatory diseases which reveal the potential use of these cells to treat such diseases.
    Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications 03/2014; 7(1):53-63. DOI:10.2147/SCCAA.S58696
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