Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes in macrophages.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effect of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RAW264.7 macrophage-like cells. The expression of VEGF was induced in RAW264.7 cells treated with HKLM. Pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, inhibited the induction of VEGF mRNA by HKLM. Induction of VEGF by HKLM was partially inhibited by treatment of cells with SB203580, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, or a neutralizing antibody against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In addition, HKLM induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that p38 MAPK and TNF-alpha are involved in the VEGF expression induced by HKLM in RAW264.7 cells. We confirmed that increased VEGF expression is immunohistochemically detected in splenic macrophages of mice infected with L. monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). VEGF is thought to be involved in inflammatory reactions induced by L. monocytogenes infection.
Article: Up-regulation of intestinal vascular endothelial growth factor by Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis has been recently described as a novel component of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been found increased in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis mucosa. To question whether a pro-inflammatory Escherichia coli could regulate the expression of VEGF in human intestinal epithelial cells, we examine the response of cultured human colonic T84 cells to infection by E. coli strain C1845 that belongs to the typical Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli family (Afa/Dr DAEC). VEGF mRNA expression was examined by Northern blotting and q-PCR. VEGF protein levels were assayed by ELISA and its bioactivity was analysed in endothelial cells. The bacterial factor involved in VEGF induction was identified using recombinant E. coli expressing Dr adhesin, purified Dr adhesin and lipopolysaccharide. The signaling pathway activated for the up-regulation of VEGF was identified using a blocking monoclonal anti-DAF antibody, Western blot analysis and specific pharmacological inhibitors. C1845 bacteria induce the production of VEGF protein which is bioactive. VEGF is induced by adhering C1845 in both a time- and bacteria concentration-dependent manner. This phenomenon is not cell line dependent since we reproduced this observation in intestinal LS174, Caco2/TC7 and INT407 cells. Up-regulation of VEGF production requires: (1) the interaction of the bacterial F1845 adhesin with the brush border-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) acting as a bacterial receptor, and (2) the activation of a Src protein kinase upstream of the activation of the Erk and Akt signaling pathways. Results demonstrate that a Afa/Dr DAEC strain induces an adhesin-dependent activation of DAF signaling that leads to the up-regulation of bioactive VEGF in cultured human intestinal cells. Thus, these results suggest a link between an entero-adherent, pro-inflammatory E. coli strain and angiogenesis which appeared recently as a novel component of IBD pathogenesis.PLoS ONE 02/2007; 2(12):e1359. · 4.09 Impact Factor