Host immune consequences of asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis infection in pregnancy
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to define the impact of asymptomatic trichomoniasis on lower genital tract neutrophil activation in pregnancy.
In this nested cohort study, pelvic examination was performed on 65 asymptomatic pregnant women between 7 and 22 weeks' with vaginal pH > 4.4. Concentrations of cervical interleukin-8 and alpha-defensin were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by culture.
Median concentrations of vaginal fluid neutrophil defensins and cervical interleukin-8 were significantly greater among women with asymptomatic trichomoniasis (median defensins 18,622 ng/mL, median IL-8 9244 pg/mL) than their uninfected counterparts (median defensins 5144 ng/mL, median IL-8 2044 pg/mL) (P < .001). All women with asymptomatic trichomoniasis had detectable defensin and interleukin-8 concentrations.
Asymptomatic trichomoniasis in pregnancy is accompanied by a state of neutrophil activation.
- SourceAvailable from: Theresa L Chang
HIV-Host Interactions, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-442-9
- "Cationic peptides including defensins are required for anti-HIV activity of vaginal fluid from healthy women (Venkataraman et al., 2005). While it is well established that sexual transmitted infections (STIs) significantly increase the likelihood of HIV transmission (Chesson and Pinkerton, 2000; Cohen et al., 1997; Galvin and Cohen, 2004; Mabey, 2000; Plummer, 1998) and that levels of defensins including HNPs, HBDs and HD5 in genital fluid, are elevated in patients with STIs (Porter et al., 2005; Simhan et al., 2007; Valore et al., 2006; Wiesenfeld et al., 2002), the role of defensins in HIV transmission seems to be complex. "
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- "At the same time in symptomatic women, antiinflammatory mediators such as the soluble leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) were lower (possibly due to digestion by trichomonas cysteine proteases) and reactive nitrogen intermediates were higher (Al-Mohammed and Hussein, 2006; Draper et al., 1998). The presence of increased C-reactive protein in the sera of T. vaginalis-infected pregnant women suggests that the impact of the immunoinflammatory reaction to the parasite exceeds the boundaries of the reproductive tract mucosa (Simhan et al., 2007). Mechanisms of pregnancy complications linked to T. vaginalis remain elusive. "
ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted pathogen. The infection is prevalent in reproductive age women and is associated with vaginitis, endometritis, adnexitis, pyosalpinx, infertility, preterm birth, low birth weight, bacterial vaginosis, and increased risk of cervical cancer, HPV, and HIV infection. In men, its complications include urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis, and infertility through inflammatory damage or interference with the sperm function. The infection is often asymptomatic and recurrent despite the presence of specific antibodies, suggesting the importance of the innate immune defense. T. vaginalis adhesion proteins, cysteine proteases, and the major parasite lipophosphoglycan (LPG) play distinct roles in the pathogenesis and evasion of host immunity. LPG plays a key role in the parasite adherence and signaling to human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells, which is at least in part mediated by galectins. The epithelial cells respond to T. vaginalis infection and purified LPG by selective upregulation of proinflammatory mediators. At the same time, T. vaginalis triggers an immunosuppressive response in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive complications and epidemiologic risks associated with T. vaginalis infection remain to be elucidated.Journal of Reproductive Immunology 10/2009; 83(1-2):185-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jri.2009.08.007 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is acquired during sex, across a mucosal membrane. Despite many advances in our understanding of HIV pathogenesis, the initial events during mucosal transmission have been poorly characterized, and a better understanding of these events will probably be a key to the development of successful microbicide(s) and/or a preventative HIV vaccine. While a vast majority of mucosal HIV exposures do not result in productive infection, implying that innate mucosal immune defenses are highly protective, failure of these mucosal defenses resulted in over 3 million new HIV infections in 2006. We review recent findings regarding HIV mucosal immunopathogenesis, emphasizing the importance of innate immunity in natural protection from infection, and examine how natural or induced perturbations in the mucosal innate system may underpin HIV transmission. Given the great challenges to the development of HIV microbicides and vaccines, identification and enhancement of 'natural' innate immune defenses present attractive avenues for development of safe, non-toxic microbicides.American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989) 02/2008; 59(1):44-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00563.x · 2.67 Impact Factor
Marijane A Krohn