Emodin induces apoptosis through caspase 3-dependent pathway in HK-2 cells
ABSTRACT Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a major constituent of rhubarb. Although it has been claimed to have a wild spectrum of therapeutic value, its side effects, especially in human kidney cells have not been well characterized. In the present study, we treated human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 cells with emodin in vitro and evaluated its toxic effects with cell viability, cell cycle phases and induction of apoptosis/necrosis and activity of caspase 3. The proliferation of HK-2 cells was inhibited by emodin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis revealed that HK-2 cells were locked in G1 phase by emodin as for 12h. Apoptosis was supported by the Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assay and the occurrence of a sub-G1 peak. Emodin caused an increase in caspase 3-like activities and a caspase 3 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO, attenuated the apoptosis. These results suggested that HK-2 cells are sensitive to emodin-induced cytotoxic effects, which are mediated through the induction of apoptosis in caspase 3-dependent pathway.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, a numerous studies had been conducted in all over the world to explore the traditional medicinal system as a resource of complementary and alternative medicine. The Indian indigenous drugs from the medicinal plants also have great importance, both professional and economical point of view. Rheum webbianum Royle commonly known as Rhubarb, is an important medicinal plant, belonging to the family Polygonaceae. It is commonly used for the management of renal function disorders, hyperlipidemia, cancer and improves the memory in senile patients. R. webbianum, R. speciformae, R. tibetana and R. orcroftianum are the commonly found species in cold arid zones of India. The Rheum species contains a number of anthraquinone derivatives. The free anthraquinones viz. rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophamol are present in nearly all species. Stilbene glycosides, including rhaponticin and the metabolite rhapontigenin, have been identified in the root. Tannins, sennosides, catechins, gallic acid, and cinnaminic acid have been identified. Keeping in view the utility of this plant in certain herbal products and traditional medicine, conservation and sustainable utilization of this rare species is the urgent need of present hour. This will not only provide raw material but also provide resource generation for economic development for the local population in the cold arid high altitude regions of Ladakh Himalaya.
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ABSTRACT: Emodin, a major compound in total rhubarb anthraquinones (TRAs), has exhibited nephrotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats and cytotoxicity to HK-2 cells, a human proximal tubular epithelial cell line, in our previous study. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying emodin-induced cytotoxicity remain undefined. In this study, the exposure of HK-2 cells to emodin led to decreased cell viability, caspase 3 cleavage and activation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. Meanwhile, the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA and protein expression were elevated. GW9662, an antagonist of PPARγ, dramatically ameliorated the release of cytochrome c, the activation of caspase 3, and the reduction of cell viability induced by emodin. Importantly, emodin at the concentration causing apoptosis enhanced the stability of PPARγ mRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that PPARγ might mediate, at least in part, emodin-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.Toxicology in Vitro 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2014.10.021 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., which is known as Heshouwu ( in Chinese) in China. It is traditionally valued and reported for hair-blacking, liver and kidney-tonifying and anti-aging effects as well as low toxicity. The aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology of Polygonum multiflorum, based on the scientific literature. Moreover, trends and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are discussed. It will build up a new foundation for further study on Polygonum multiflorum. A systematic review of the literature on Polygonum multiflorum was performed using several resources, including classic books on Chinese herbal medicine and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI). Polygonum multiflorum is widely distributed throughout the world and has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries in China. The ethnomedical uses of Polygonum multiflorum have been recorded in many provinces of China and Japan for nine species of adulterants in six families. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major components have been determined to be stilbenes, quinones, flavonoids and others. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in pre-clinical and clinical practice due to their anti-aging, anti-hyperlipidaemia, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and to promote immunomodulation, neuroprotection, and the curing of other diseases. However, these extracts can also lead to hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and embryonic toxicity. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of Polygonum multiflorum, such as 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and emodin are distributed among many organs and tissues. Therapeutic potential of Polygonum multiflorum has been demonstrated in the conditions like Alzheimer׳s disease, Parkinson׳s disease, hyperlipidaemia, inflammation and cancer, which is attributed to the presence of various stilbenes, quinones, flavonoids, phospholipids and other compounds in the drug. On the other hand, the adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and embryonic toxicity) of this plant were caused by the quinones, such as emodin and rhein. Thus more pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms on main active compounds are necessary to be explored, especially the combined anthraquinones (Emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, Physcion-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, etc.) and the variety of stilbenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 11/2014; 159C:158-183. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.11.009 · 2.94 Impact Factor