Use of IUD and subsequent fertility--follow-up after participation in a randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT Although the IUD has been a contraceptive method for about 50 years, how it affects subsequent fertility remains controversial. The aim of our study was to examine time to pregnancy, pregnancy outcome and the need for infertility workup in a cohort of previous copper IUD users.
From May 1993 to April 1995, 957 women were included in a prospective cohort IUD study in the city of Trondheim, Norway. From this randomized clinical trial, we identified 205 women eligible for study participation. Group A comprised 109 women who removed their IUD for purposes of planning to become pregnant, while Group B comprised 96 women who became pregnant or planned pregnancy after a complicated IUD use. Data were collected through a postal questionnaire. All information from the questionnaires was validated against data kept in the medical record at the general practitioner's office or in the hospital record of women who became pregnant or started an infertility workup. All analyses were done using SPSS.
In Group A, 93.6% (102/109) of the women became pregnant. Time to conception was unaffected by parity order, duration of use and age at time for removal of the IUD. Among the seven women who did not conceive, four women cancelled pregnancy plans, while three women started an infertility workup. The distribution of intra-/extrauterine pregnancies did not differ between Groups A and B. However, significantly more pregnancies were terminated as induced abortions in Group B. The two women (2%) who did not conceive in Group B did not start an infertility workup.
In line with results from other studies, there is no evidence that prior use of a copper-containing IUD increases the risk for impaired fertility regardless of the reason for removal.
Article: ‘Op de kop getikt’Huisarts en wetenschap 04/2010; 53(4). DOI:10.1007/s12445-010-0101-9
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ABSTRACT: The IUD (intra uterine device) is a highly effective method of contraception that is underused. New developments in intrauterine technology, smaller frameless copper and levonorgestrel-releasing devices, could help increase the prevalence-- of use in adolescents and nulliparous women. Because adolescents and young nulliparous women contribute disproportionately to the epidemic of unintended pregnancies, long-acting methods of contraception, particularly IUDs, should be considered as first-line choices for interval, emergency and immediate post-abortal contraception in this population of women. As the uterine cavity is generally much smaller in this group than in older women, adapted IUDs may be very useful. Compatibility of the IUD with the small uterine cavity leads to high acceptability and continuation of use, a prerequisite to reduce unintended pregnancies. A strategic advantage of IUDs is that, unlike the Pill, they are genuinely 'fit-and-forget'. In use, they are much more effective than Pills in this age group. However, copper intrauterine devices do not offer protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and, therefore, they are not always the methods of first choice for teenagers and nulliparous women. New evidence, however, from the World Health -Organization and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, shows that IUDs can be used and that they are safe for most women, including adolescents.
Article: Contraception for Adolescents[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.Pediatrics 09/2014; 134(4). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-2300 · 5.30 Impact Factor