Prophylactic potential of liposomized integral membrane protein of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis against blood stage infection in BALB/c mice.
ABSTRACT Triton X-114 phase separated integral membrane proteins (IMPs) of a multidrug resistant strain of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (P. yoelii) were screened for their potential to impart protection against malaria infection in BALB/c mice. As revealed by immunoblotting, antibodies present in parasite specific sera from convalescent (protected) as well as immunized (partially protected) animals recognized different membrane proteins. A thorough investigation reveals that P. yoelii specific convalescent sera recognized IMPs with molecular masses ranging from 21 to 81 kDa. Among various membrane proteins, the IMPs corresponding to 81 and 66 kDa molecular weight were highly prominent in the immunoblots probed with the sera from convalescent animals, whereas sera from immunized animals failed to produce impressive band pattern. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that the 66-kDa IMP specific antibodies reacted with fixed smears of mature schizonts and merozoites. Further immunization with 66 kDa IMP (PyIMP) purified through polyclonal IgG sepharose 4B affinity did not impart effective immune response (in its free form) and could provided partial protection only. On the other hand, animals immunized with 66 kDa PyIMP entrapped in phosphatidyl-choline/cholesterol (PC/chol) liposomes protected BALB/c mice against lethal P. yoelii challenge.
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ABSTRACT: Progress towards a vaccine against malaria is advancing rapidly with several candidate antigens being tested for their safety and efficacy. In present investigation, two polypeptides (43 and 48 kDa) of Plasmodium berghei (NK-65) were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of both these polypeptides formulated in saponin has been compared in Balb/c mice against challenge infection with P. berghei. Antibody responses were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Merozoite invasion inhibition assay and challenge infections revealed that 48 kDa antigen is better immunogen as compared to 43 kDa and provide better protection against rodent malaria infection.Journal of parasitic diseases 10/2010; 34(2):68-74.
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ABSTRACT: Malaria is an infectious disease that mainly affects children and pregnant women from tropical countries. The mortality rate of people infected with malaria per year is enormous and became a public health concern. The main factor that has contributed to the success of malaria proliferation is the increased number of drug resistant parasites. To counteract this trend, research has been done in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, for the development of new biocompatible systems capable of incorporating drugs, lowering the resistance progress, contributing for diagnosis, control and treatment of malaria by target delivery. In this review, we discussed the main problems associated with the spread of malaria and the most recent developments in nanomedicine for anti-malarial drug delivery.Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 10/2013; · 8.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Incorporation of parasite's subcellular fractions in subunit vaccines can be a possible approach for formulation of vaccine against malaria. In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of 10,000g fraction of blood stage Plasmodium berghei was evaluated in mouse model. This fraction induced higher levels of anti parasite antibodies and provided complete and long lasting protection as compared to whole parasite antigens. Antiserum raised against it was immunoadsorbed on CNBr activated sepharose-4B to elute antigens from this fraction. Eluted antigens were characterized electrophoretically, and after lyophilization these were designated as ML-I (having 55, 64, 66, 74kDa proteins), ML-II (having 51, 64, 66, 72kDa proteins) and ML-III (having only 47kDa protein) sub-fractions. Mice were immunized with these sub-fractions and immune responses induced by various immunization regimens were evaluated and compared with that of 10,000g fraction. These sub-fractions imparted partial protection except ML-III, which was non-protective. 10,000g fraction as a whole provided complete protection and generated significantly higher level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in immune mice. ML-I produced significant amount of IL-1 and IL-4 as compared to ML-II. Enhanced level of malaria-specific IgG1 was produced by ML-II, but IgG2a was significantly higher in ML-I immunized mice. Conclusively, this study identifies 10,000g fraction as a promising blood stage vaccine candidate and suggests that a vaccine based upon multiple antigens may be more efficacious as compared to single antigen based formulations.Parasitology International 10/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor