Practical considerations in development of solid dosage forms that contain cyclodextrin.
ABSTRACT The following is a review of the literature that addresses the use of cyclodextrin in solid dosage forms. Care was taken to exclude physical and chemical characteristics of cyclodextrin, which have been discussed in the literature. A flow diagram is provided to outline the decision-making steps that are involved in the development process. Both preparation of physical mixtures and inclusion complexes are considered. Analytical techniques to determine the presence of inclusion complexes, the effect of other excipients on complex formation, the effect of size limitation of solid dosages forms, powder processing, and storage of solid dosage forms are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Efavirenz (EFV) is an oral antihuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug with extremely poor aqueous solubility. Thus, its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by the dissolution rate of the drug. The objective of this study was to characterize the inclusion complexes of EFV with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl β-CD (HPβCD), and randomly methylated β-CD (RMβCD) to improve the solubility and dissolution of EFV. The inclusion complexation of EFV with cyclodextrins in the liquid state was characterized by phase solubility studies. The solid-state characterization of various EFV and CD systems was performed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Dissolution studies were carried out in distilled water using US Pharmacopeia dissolution rate testing equipment. Phase solubility studies provided an AL-type solubility diagram for β-CD and AP-type solubility diagram for HPβCD and RMβCD. The phase solubility data enabled calculating stability constants (K s) for EFV-βCD, EFV-HPβCD, and EFV-RMβCD systems which were 288, 469, and 1,073M−1, respectively. The physical and kneaded mixtures of EFV with CDs generally provided higher dissolution of EFV as expected. The dissolution of EFV was substantially higher with HPβCD and RMβCD inclusion complexes prepared by the freeze drying method. Thus, complexation with HPβCD and RMβCD could possibly improve the dissolution rate-limited absorption of EFV.AAPS PharmSciTech 04/2012; 10(1):81-87. · 1.43 Impact Factor
Article: The solubility-permeability interplay and its implications in formulation design and development for poorly soluble drugs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While each of the two key parameters of oral drug absorption, the solubility and the permeability, has been comprehensively studied separately, the relationship and interplay between the two have been largely ignored. For instance, when formulating a low-solubility drug using various solubilization techniques: what are we doing to the apparent permeability when we increase the solubility? Permeability is equal to the drug's diffusion coefficient through the membrane times the membrane/aqueous partition coefficient divided by the membrane thickness. The direct correlation between the intestinal permeability and the membrane/aqueous partitioning, which in turn is dependent on the drug's apparent solubility in the GI milieu, suggests that the solubility and the permeability are closely associated, exhibiting a certain interplay between them, and the current view of treating the one irrespectively of the other may not be sufficient. In this paper, we describe the research that has been done thus far, and present new data, to shed light on this solubility-permeability interplay. It has been shown that decreased apparent permeability accompanies the solubility increase when using different solubilization methods. Overall, the weight of the evidence indicates that the solubility-permeability interplay cannot be ignored when using solubility-enabling formulations; looking solely at the solubility enhancement that the formulation enables may be misleading with regards to predicting the resulting absorption, and hence, the solubility-permeability interplay must be taken into account to strike the optimal solubility-permeability balance, in order to maximize the overall absorption.The AAPS Journal 03/2012; 14(2):244-51. · 5.09 Impact Factor
Article: Comparison of ibuprofen release from minitablets and capsules containing ibuprofen: β-cyclodextrin complex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mixtures containing ibuprofen (IB) complexed with β-cyclodextrin (βCD) obtained by two complexation methods [suspension/solution (with water removed by air stream, spray- and freeze-drying) and kneading technique] were processed into pharmaceutical dosage forms (minitablets and capsules). Powders (IB, βCD and IBβCD) were characterized for moisture content, densities (true and bulk), angle of repose and Carr's index, X-ray and NMR. From physical mixtures and IBβCD complexes without other excipients were prepared 2.5-mm-diameter minitablets and capsules. Minitablets were characterized for the energy of compaction, tensile strength, friability, density and IB release (at pH 1.0 and 7.2), whereby capsules were characterized for IB release. The results from the release of IB were analyzed using different parameters, namely, the similarity factor (f(2)), the dissolution efficiency (DE) and the amounts released at a certain time (30, 60 and 180 min) and compared statistically (α=0.05). The release of IB from the minitablets showed no dependency on the amount of water used in the formation of the complexes. Differences were due to the compaction force used or the presence of a shell for the capsules. The differences observed were mostly due to the characteristics of the particles (dependent on the method considered on the formation of the complexes) and neither to the dosage form nor to the complex of the IB.European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 12/2010; 78(1):58-66. · 3.15 Impact Factor