Oral antiplatelet therapy with P2Y(12) receptor blockers (especially clopidogrel) is the current choice of treatment during acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous interventions. To address the various limitations of thienopyridine therapy (including response variability and non-responsiveness) a novel drug, AZD6140, is under clinical development. AZD6140 is an oral and reversible P2Y(12) receptor blocker that does not require hepatic conversion to an active metabolite and produces an overall superior ADP-induced platelet inhibition with less response variability than clopidogrel. It has fast onset and offset actions that may be advantageous in patients who may have to undergo immediate surgery.
"Moreover, it does not require any metabolic activation although an active metabolite has been identified with quite similar features and antiplatelet capacity thus participating in the overall antiplatelet effect. Peak plasma level of ticagrelor is reached after 1.5–3 hours and the half-life is 6–12 hours, depending on the dose   and more than 70% is excreted via the kidney. In animal models, cangrelor inhibits ex vivo ADPinduced platelet aggregation without prolonging the bleeding times perhaps showing a fast restoration of platelet reactivity at the end of the infusion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thienopyridines are a class of drug targeting the platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 2 receptor. They significantly reduce platelet activity and are therefore clinically beneficial in settings where platelet activation is a key pathophysiological feature, particularly myocardial infarction. Ticlopidine, the first of the class introduced to clinical practice, was soon challenged and almost completely replaced by clopidogrel for its better tolerability. More recently, prasugrel and ticagrelor have been shown to provide a more powerful antiplatelet action compared to clopidogrel but at a cost of higher risk of bleeding complications. Cangrelor, a molecule very similar to ticagrelor, is currently being evaluated against clopidogrel. Considering the key balance of ischemic protection and bleeding risk, this paper discusses the background to the development of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and cangrelor and aims to characterise their risk-benefit profile and possible implementation in daily practice.
Advances in Hematology 12/2010; 2010(1687-9104):595934. DOI:10.1155/2010/595934
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet inhibitors are the mainstay treatment for patients with vascular diseases. The current 'gold standard' antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has several pharmacological and clinical limitations that have prompted the search for more effective platelet antagonists. The candidates include various blockers of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor such as prasugrel, an oral irreversible thienopyridine; two adenosine triphosphate analogues that bind reversibly to the P2Y12 receptor: ticagrelor (oral) and cangrelor (intravenous); elinogrel, a direct-acting reversible P2Y12 receptor inhibitor (the only antiplatelet compound that can be administered both intravenously and orally); BX 667, an orally active and reversible small-molecule P2Y12 receptor antagonist; SCH 530348, SCH 205831, SCH 602539 and E5555, highly selective and orally active antagonists on the protease-activated receptor 1. A number of drugs also hit new targets: terutroban, an oral, selective and specific inhibitor of the thromboxane receptor; ARC1779, a second-generation, nuclease resistant aptamer which inhibits von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet aggregation; ALX-0081, a bivalent humanized nanobody targeting the GPIb binding site of von Willebrand factor and AJW200, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody of von Willebrand factor. The pharmacology and clinical profiles of new platelet antagonists indicate that they provide more consistent, more rapid and more potent platelet inhibition than agents currently used. Whether these potential advantages will translate into clinical advantages will require additional comparisons in properly powered, randomized, controlled trials.
British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2010; 159(3):502-17. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00555.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ADP is one of the most important mediators of both physiologic hemostasis and thrombosis. Development and utilization of agents that block ADP receptors on the platelet membrane, namely thienopyridines, has represented a major advancement for treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions and those with acute coronary syndromes. Currently, clopidogrel, a second-generation thienopyridine that inhibits the ADP P2Y12 receptor, represents the treatment of choice, in addition to aspirin, for the prevention of stent thrombosis. Further, long-term adjunctive use of this ADP P2Y12 receptor antagonist is also associated with improved clinical outcomes in high-risk patients, and represents the standard of care for these patients. Despite the unambiguous clinical benefit associated with clopidogrel, accumulating experience with this drug has also led to identification of some of its drawbacks, which are related to inadequate platelet inhibition with standard dosage regimens as well as to its irreversible antiplatelet effects. This has led to the questioning of currently recommended clopidogrel dosage regimens as well as to the development of novel and more potent ADP P2Y12 receptor antagonists, some of which are also reversible agents. Numerous studies are currently ongoing with the objective of demonstrating how more potent platelet inhibition using higher loading and maintenance dose regimens of clopidogrel or novel ADP P2Y12 receptor antagonists — such as prasugrel, ticagrelor (AZD 6140) and cangrelor — will affect clinical outcomes. This article reviews the current knowledge of platelet ADP P2Y12 receptor antagonism and the projected developments in this field.
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 01/2007; 7(6). DOI:10.2165/00129784-200707060-00005 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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