Spin-forbidden ligand binding to the ferrous-heme group: ab initio and DFT studies.
ABSTRACT The potential energy surfaces (PESs) and associated energy barriers that characterize the spin-forbidden recombination reactions of the gas-phase ferrous deoxy-heme group with CO, NO, and H2O ligands have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The bond energy for binding of O2 has also been calculated. Extensive large basis set CCSD(T) calculations on two small models of the heme group have been used to calibrate the accuracy of different DFT functionals for treating these systems. Pure functionals are shown to overestimate the stability of the low-spin forms of the deoxy-heme model, and to overestimate the binding energy of H2O and CO, whereas hybrid functionals such as B3PW91 and B3LYP yield accurate results. Accordingly, the latter functionals have been used to explore the PESs for binding. CO binding is found to involve a significant barrier of ca. 3 kcal mol-1 due to the need to change from the deoxy-heme quintet ground state to the bound singlet state. Binding of water does not involve a barrier, but the resulting bond is weak and may be further weakened in the protein environment, which should explain why water binding is not usually observed in heme proteins such as myoglobin. NO binding involves a low barrier, which is consistent with observed rapid geminate recombination. The calculated bond energies are in good agreement with previous reported values and in fair agreement with experiment for CO and O2. The value for NO is significantly lower than the experimentally derived bond energy, suggesting that B3LYP is less accurate in this case.
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ABSTRACT: Ligand selectivity for dioxygen (O(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxide (NO) is critical for signal transduction and is tailored specifically for each heme-protein sensor. Key NO sensors, such as soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), specifically recognized low levels of NO and achieve a total O(2) exclusion. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the O(2) insensitivity, including lack of a hydrogen bond donor and negative electrostatic fields to selectively destabilize bound O(2), distal steric hindrance of all bound ligands to the heme iron, and restriction of in-plane movements of the iron atom. RECENT ADVANCES: Crystallographic structures of the gas sensors, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis heme-nitric oxide/oxygen-binding domain (Tt H-NOX(1)) or Nostoc puntiforme (Ns) H-NOX, and measurements of O(2) binding to site-specific mutants of Tt H-NOX and the truncated β subunit of sGC suggest the need for a H-bonding donor to facilitate O(2) binding. However, the O(2) insensitivity of full length sGC with a site-specific replacement of isoleucine by a tyrosine on residue 145 and the very slow autooxidation of Ns H-NOX and cytochrome c' suggest that more complex mechanisms have evolved to exclude O(2) but retain high affinity NO binding. A combined graphical analysis of ligand binding data for libraries of heme sensors, globins, and model heme shows that the NO sensors dramatically inhibit the formation of six-coordinated NO, CO, and O(2) complexes by direct distal steric hindrance (cyt c'), proximal constraints of in-plane iron movement (sGC), or combinations of both following a sliding scale rule. High affinity NO binding in H-NOX proteins is achieved by multiple NO binding steps that produce a high affinity five-coordinate NO complex, a mechanism that also prevents NO dioxygenation. Knowledge advanced by further extensive test of this "sliding scale rule" hypothesis should be valuable in guiding novel designs for heme based sensors.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 02/2012; 17(9):1246-63. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide oxidation activator (CooA) proteins are heme-based CO-sensing transcription factors. Here we study the ultrafast dynamics of geminate CO rebinding in two CooA homologues, Rhodospirillum rubrum (RrCooA) and Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (ChCooA). The effects of DNA binding and the truncation of the DNA-binding domain on the CO geminate recombination kinetics were specifically investigated. The CO rebinding kinetics in these CooA complexes take place on ultrafast time scales but remain non-exponential over many decades in time. We show that this non-exponential kinetic response is due to a quenched enthalpic barrier distribution resulting from a distribution of heme geometries that is frozen or slowly evolving on the time scale of CO rebinding. We also show that, upon CO binding, the distal pocket of the heme in the CooA proteins relaxes to form a very efficient hydrophobic trap for CO. DNA binding further tightens the narrow distal pocket and slightly weakens the iron-proximal histidine bond. Comparison of the CO rebinding kinetics of RrCooA, truncated RrCooA, and DNA-bound RrCooA proteins reveals that the uncomplexed and inherently flexible DNA-binding domain adds additional structural heterogeneity to the heme doming coordinate. When CooA forms a complex with DNA, the flexibility of the DNA-binding domain decreases, and the distribution of the conformations available in the heme domain becomes restricted. The kinetic studies also offer insights into how the architecture of the heme environment can tune entropic barriers in order to control the geminate recombination of CO in heme proteins, whereas spin selection rules play a minor or non-existent role.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(26):21729-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selectivity among NO, CO, and O₂ is crucial for the physiological function of most heme proteins. Although there is a million-fold variation in equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)), the ratios for NO:CO:O₂ binding stay roughly the same, 1:~10(3):~10(6), when the proximal ligand is a histidine and the distal site is apolar. For these proteins, there is a "sliding scale rule" for plots of log(K(D)) versus ligand type that allows predictions of K(D) values if one or two are missing. The predicted K(D) for binding of O₂to Ns H-NOX coincides with the value determined experimentally at high pressures. Active site hydrogen bond donors break the rule and selectively increase O₂ affinity with little effect on CO and NO binding. Strong field proximal ligands such as thiolate, tyrosinate, and imidazolate exert a "leveling" effect on ligand binding affinity. The reported picomolar K(D) for binding of NO to sGC deviates even more dramatically from the sliding scale rule, showing a NO:CO K(D) ratio of 1:~10(8). This deviation is explained by a complex, multistep process, in which an initial low-affinity hexacoordinate NO complex with a measured K(D) of ≈54 nM, matching that predicted from the sliding scale rule, is formed initially and then is converted to a high-affinity pentacoordinate complex. This multistep six-coordinate to five-coordinate mechanism appears to be common to all NO sensors that exclude O₂ binding to capture a lower level of cellular NO and prevent its consumption by dioxygenation.Biochemistry 11/2011; 51(1):172-86. · 3.38 Impact Factor