Article

DNA and RNA autoantigens as autoadjuvants.

Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Journal of Endotoxin Research (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2006; 12(6):379-84. DOI: 10.1179/096805106X118816
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT AM14 B cells are a prototype for those low affinity autoreactive B cells that routinely mature as naïve cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. These cells express a transgene-encoded receptor specific for IgG2a and can be effectively activated by immune complexes that incorporate either mammalian DNA or mammalian RNA that has been released from dead or dying cells. Activation depends on the ability of the B-cell receptor to deliver antigen to an internal vesicular compartment containing either Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) or TLR7. Since TLR9 and TLR7 are thought to recognize microbial DNA and RNA preferentially, it is important to determine under what conditions mammalian DNA and RNA become effective TLR ligands, and whether the determining factor is delivery or structure. This issue has been addressed by using IgG2a mAbs to deliver immune complexes preloaded with defined fragments of DNA or RNA, or by using modified ODNs/ORNs. The data demonstrate that only certain nucleic acid sequences or structures can induce autoreactive B-cell proliferation, even when delivery to the appropriate TLR compartment is facilitated by uptake through the B-cell receptor (BCR).

0 Bookmarks
 · 
82 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mice that fail to express the phagolysosomal endonuclease DNase II and the type I IFN receptor, excessive accrual of undegraded DNA results in a STING-dependent, TLR-independent inflammatory arthritis. These double-knockout (DKO) mice develop additional indications of systemic autoimmunity, including anti-nuclear autoantibodies and splenomegaly, that are not found in Unc93b1(3d/3d) DKO mice and, therefore, are TLR dependent. The DKO autoantibodies predominantly detect RNA-associated autoantigens, which are commonly targeted in TLR7-dominated systemic erythematosus lupus-prone mice. To determine whether an inability of TLR9 to detect endogenous DNA could explain the absence of dsDNA-reactive autoantibodies in DKO mice, we used a novel class of bifunctional autoantibodies, IgM/DNA dual variable domain Ig molecules, to activate B cells through a BCR/TLR9-dependent mechanism. DKO B cells could not respond to the IgM/DNA dual variable domain Ig molecule, despite a normal response to both anti-IgM and CpG ODN 1826. Thus, DKO B cells only respond to RNA-associated ligands because DNase II-mediated degradation of self-DNA is required for TLR9 activation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7, 8, and 9 stimulate innate immune responses upon recognizing pathogen nucleic acids. Certain GU- or AU-rich RNA sequences were described to differentiate between human TLR7- and TLR8-mediated immune effects. Those single-stranded RNA molecules require endosomal delivery for stabilization against ribonucleases. We have discovered RNA sequences that preferentially activate TLR7, form higher ordered structures, and do not require specific cellular delivery. In addition, a dual activation of TLR8 and TLR9 without affecting TLR7 can be achieved by chimeric molecules consisting of GU-rich RNA and Cytosin (C) phosphordiester or phosphorthioat (p) guanine (CpG) motif DNA sequences. Such chimeras stimulate TLR9-mediated type I interferon (IFN) and TLR8-depending proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production upon primary human cell activation. However, an RNA-dependent TLR7 IFN-α cytokine release is suppressed by the phosphorothioate DNA sequence contained in the chimeric molecule. To convert the immune response of a single-stranded RNA from TLR7/8 to TLR9, a simple chemical modification at the 5' end proves to be sufficient. Such 8-oxo-2'-deoxy-guanosine or 8-bromo-2'-deoxy-guanosine modifications of the first guanosine in GU-rich single-stranded RNAs convert the immune response to include TLR9 activation and demonstrate strong additive effects for type I IFN immune responses in human primary cells.
    12/2011; 21(6):423-36. DOI:10.1089/nat.2011.0323
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides containing an immune-stimulatory motif and an immune-regulatory motif act as antagonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9. In the present study, we designed and synthesized oligonucleotide-based antagonists of TLR7, 8 and 9 containing a 7-deaza-dG or arabino-G modification in the immune-stimulatory motif and 2'-O-methylribonucleotides as the immune-regulatory motif. We evaluated the biological properties of these novel synthetic oligoribonucleotides as antagonists of TLRs 7, 8 and 9 in murine and human cell-based assays and in vivo in mice and non-human primates. In HEK293, mouse and human cell-based assays, the antagonist compounds inhibited signaling pathways and production of a broad range of cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-α, IL-1β and interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, mediated by TLR7, 8 and 9. In vivo in mice, the antagonist compounds inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-mediated cytokine induction in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from antagonist compound-treated monkeys secreted lower levels of TLR7-, 8- and 9-mediated cytokines than did PBMCs taken before antagonist administration. The antagonist compounds described herein provide novel agents for the potential treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2013; 41(6). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt078 · 8.81 Impact Factor