Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder

School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, No 8 Priory Road, Bristol, UK, BS8 1TZ.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 02/2007; 1(1):CD005040. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005040.pub2
Source: PubMed


Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication that has been used for symptom relief and behavioural improvement in autism. This review encompasses three randomised controlled trials and concludes that risperidone may be beneficial for various aspects of autism including irritability, repetition and hyperactivity. However, all studies were relatively small and used different ways to assess effectiveness, making comparisons difficult. In addition, side effects were identified, notably weight gain. Further studies are therefore necessary to determine the long term benefits, if any, compared with the potential risks.

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    • "Risperidone is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antipsychotic for the treatment of symptoms in children and adolescents with ASD.7,17 Risperidone is useful in the management of behavioral problems, such as irritability, aggression, self-injurious behavior, hyperactivity, and repetitive behavior.18–21 "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with both core symptoms and associated symptoms (eg, irritability, aggression, and comorbidities) that affect both the individual and the family/systems around them. There have been recent advances in the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of ASD pertaining to genetics, epigenetics, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors that contribute to the difficulties found in individuals with ASD. With this improved understanding, there has been a shift in the application of psychopharmacology in ASD and its related disorders. A literature review was conducted to examine research published in the last 5 years between different classes of psychotropic medications and ASD. The broad scope of the existing literature for the use of conventional medications is summarized and novel medications are discussed.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 02/2014; 10:371-381. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S39516 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    • "Currently, behavioral modification techniques have been the most powerful positive interventions for autism spectrum disorders (Lovaas, 1987; Lovaas and Simmons, 1969). The antipsychotic risperidone is the only FDA approved medication for autism, and has been reported to (i) significantly decrease hyperactivity and irritability symptoms, (ii) have little to no effect on inappropriate speech or social withdrawal, and (iii) show significant weight gain and sedative side effects (Jesner et al., 2007). Perhaps the next most effective treatment in facilitating prosocial responsivity in a subset of autistic children is the off-label use of the opiate receptor antagonist naltrexone (Elchaar et al., 2006; Panksepp et al., 1991; Rossignol, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Early childhood autism is characterized by deficits in social approach and play behaviors, socio-emotional relatedness, and communication/speech abnormalities, as well as repetitive behaviors. These core neuropsychological features of autism can be modeled in laboratory rats, and the results may be useful for drug discovery and therapeutic development. We review data that show that rats selectively bred for low rates of play-related pro-social ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used to model social deficit symptoms of autism. Low-line animals engage in less social contact time with conspecifics, show lower rates of play induced pro-social USVs, and show an increased proportion of non-frequency modulated (i.e. monotonous) ultrasonic vocalizations compared to non-selectively bred random-line animals. Gene expression patterns in the low-line animals show significant enrichment in autism-associated genes, and the NMDA receptor family was identified as a significant hub. Treatment of low-line animals with the NMDAR functional glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13, rescued the deficits in play-induced pro-social 50-kHz USVs and reduced monotonous USVs. Since the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the genesis of autistic symptoms, it is possible that GLYX-13 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of autism.
    Behavioural brain research 04/2013; 251. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.04.022 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, neurological disorders that severely impair social integration, professional development, and quality of life have found no solution in drugs or clinician-facilitated psychology [111, 112]. Discovery or rediscovery of mental training strategies to protect the human brain while stimulating the mind and better process our perceptions of the world is therefore of great interest. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown cause that affects approximately 1-3 percent of children and four times more boys than girls. Its prevalence is global and its social impact is devastating. In autism, the brain is unable to process sensory information normally. Instead, simple stimuli from the outside world are experienced as overwhelmingly intense and strain the emotional centers of the brain. A stress response to the incoming information is initiated that destabilizes cognitive networks and short-circuits adequate behavioral output. As a result, the child is unable to respond adequately to stimulation and initiate social behavior towards family, friends, and peers. In addition, these children typically face immune-digestive disorders that heighten social fears, anxieties, and internal conflicts. While it is critical to treat the physical symptoms, it is equally vital to offer an evidence-based holistic solution that harmonizes both their emotional and physical well-being as they move from childhood into adult life. Here, we summarize evidence from clinical studies and neuroscience research that suggests that an approach built on yogic principles and meditative tools is worth pursuing. Desired outcomes include relief of clinical symptoms of the disease, greater relaxation, and facilitated expression of feelings and skills, as well as improved family and social quality of life.
    06/2012; 2012(1):835847. DOI:10.1155/2012/835847
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