Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness: Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism
ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD).
Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV) and were divided into those subjects meeting current or lifetime criteria for an alcohol use disorder (AUD=213) vs. those subjects who did not (non-AUD=137). Lifetime rates of comorbid anxiety disorder were evaluated between groups.
Of 350 subjects, 163 (46.5%) met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Panic disorder and OCD were the most common anxiety disorders in the AUD and non-AUD groups. OCD and specific phobia were significantly less prevalent in BP I patients with AUD compared to those without. Bipolar women with AUD had a significantly higher rate of PTSD than those without.
These data highlight the added liability of anxiety comorbidity in BP disorder. Specifically, the greater amount of PTSD and lesser amount of OCD in bipolar women with alcohol comorbidity may have important diagnostic and treatment implications beyond dual diagnosis. Further study in comorbidity patterns is encouraged to not only better understand illness burden, but to maximize pattern-specific treatment outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Both individuals with bipolar (BD) and those with alcohol (AUD) and other substance (SUD) use disorders are likely to attempt suicide. Comorbidity of BD and AUD/SUD may increase the likelihood of suicide attempts. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association of comorbid AUD/SUD and suicide attempts in subjects with BD in the literature to date. Methods: Electronic databases through January 2013 were searched. Studies reporting rates of suicide attempts in people with co-occurring BD and AUD/SUD were retrieved. Comorbid AUD and SUD and suicide attempts rates as well as demographic, clinical, and methodological variables were extracted from each publication or obtained directly from its authors. Results: Twenty-nine of 222 studies assessed for eligibility met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 31,294 individuals with BD, of whom 6,308 (20.1%) had documented suicide attempts. There were consistent findings across the studies included. As compared to controls, subjects with BD and comorbid AUD/SUD were more likely to attempt suicide. The cross-sectional association estimates showed random-effects pooled crude ORs of 1.96 (95%CI=1.56-2.47; p<0.01), 1.72 (95% CI=1.52-1.95; p<0.01), and 1.77 (95%CI=1.49-2.10; p<0.01), for combined AUD/SUD, AUD, and SUD. There was no publication bias and sensitivity analyses based on the highest quality studies confirmed core results. Limitations: The effects of the number and the type of suicide attempts could not be investigated due to insufficient information. Conclusions: Comorbid AUD and SUD in individuals with BD are significantly associated with suicide attempts. Individuals with this comorbidity should be targeted for intensive suicide prevention efforts.Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2014; 167:125-135. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.066 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate prevalence rates and clinical correlates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) among bipolar disorder (BD) patients in a large sample from the Brazilian Bipolar Research Network. Four hundred and eighty-three DSM-IV BD patients, divided according to the presence or absence of a lifetime AUD diagnosis (BD-AUD vs. BD-nonAUD), were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics of these two groups were compared. Logistic regression was performed to identify which characteristics were most strongly associated with a lifetime AUD diagnosis. Nearly 23% presented a lifetime AUD diagnosis. BD-AUD patients were more likely to be male, to present rapid cycling, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anorexia, other substance use disorders (SUD), family history of SUD, any substance misuse during the first mood episode, history of psychosis, suicide attempts, and younger age at onset of illness than BD-nonAUD patients. Logistic regression showed that the variables most strongly associated with a lifetime AUD diagnosis were SUD (non-alcohol), any substance misuse during the first mood episode, PTSD, male gender, suicide attempt, family history of SUD, and younger age at onset of BD. BD-AUD patients begin their mood disorder earlier and present more suicidal behaviors than BD-nonAUD patients. Personal and family history of SUD may be good predictors of comorbid AUD among BD patients. These variables are easily assessed in the clinical setting and may help to identify a particularly severe subgroup of BD patients.Comprehensive psychiatry 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.02.006 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder often co-occurs with anxiety disorders. Evidence suggests that second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) may be useful in treating both conditions. This study examined the efficacy of ziprasidone in the treatment of these disorders. This 3-site, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, 8-week trial of ziprasidone monotherapy examined 49 subjects with bipolar disorder and lifetime panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experiencing moderately severe anxiety symptoms at entrance into the study. Both bipolar disorder and anxiety diagnoses were based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients were screened and randomized from June 25, 2010, through August 23, 2011. Primary outcome measures were the Clinical Global Impressions-21 Anxiety Scale (CGI-21 Anxiety) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), with secondary measures monitoring anxiety and mood symptoms. Last-observation-carried-forward analyses demonstrated that patients in the ziprasidone group did not improve significantly more than those in the placebo group on the CGI-21 Anxiety (F1 = 0.34; P = .564) or SDS (F1 = 0.26; P = .611). Secondary analysis using hierarchical linear modeling found similar results (CGI-21 Anxiety: F1 = 1.82; P = .178; and SDS: F1 = 0.70; P = .408). Regardless of group, time in the study was associated with significant decrease in anxiety (F1 = 11.08; P = .001) and total disability (F1 = 26.16; P < .001). Patients in the ziprasidone group showed a greater increase in abnormal involuntary movement, and 81.8% (n = 9) of the subjects who withdrew from the study due to adverse events, serious adverse events, or side effects were in the ziprasidone group. Results suggest that ziprasidone monotherapy was not associated with a clinically significant improvement in anxiety symptoms or improved function for patients with bipolar disorder, lifetime panic disorder or GAD, and concurrent moderately severe anxiety symptoms, and it was associated with a more negative side-effect profile relative to placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01172652.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2013; 75(1). DOI:10.4088/JCP.12m08297 · 5.14 Impact Factor