Polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha but not MDR1 influence response to medical therapy in pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease.
ABSTRACT We investigated the contribution of variants of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and MDR1 genes in the predisposition and response to medical therapy in a large pediatric cohort of patients with Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).
In this study, 200 patients with CD, 186 patients with UC, 434 parents (217 trios), and 347 healthy unrelated controls were investigated. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms -G308A and -C857T of the TNF-alpha gene and C3435T of the MDR1 gene were investigated and correlated with clinical subphenotypes and efficacy of medical therapy.
The frequency of the -308A allele of the TNF-alpha gene was significantly increased in both patients with CD (15%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.79; P < 0.01) and patients with UC (11%; OR = 1.96; P < 0.003) compared with controls (6%). Carriers of this allele were 27% in CD (OR = 2.94; P < 0.01) and 19% in UC (OR = 1.86; P = 0.015) compared with 11% in healthy controls. No significant difference was found for both the -C857T and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms. With the genotype/phenotype analysis, no correlation in patients with UC with the MDR1 gene was found. CD carriers of the -308A allele had a higher frequency of surgical resection (35% vs 20%; OR = 2.1; P = 0.035) and more frequent resistance to steroids (22% vs 8%; OR = 0.29; P = 0.032) compared with noncarriers. These findings were confirmed by stepwise logistic regression.
In our pediatric cohort, the promoter -308A polymorphism of TNF-alpha but not the MDR1 gene is significantly involved in the predisposition to both CD and UC. This polymorphism carries a significant reduction in response to steroid therapy, probably leading to a more frequent need for surgical resection.
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 20% of all inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) first presents in childhood or adolescence, and approximately 10% of the estimated 1.4 million Americans with IBD are under age 17. Diagnosis in pediatric patients may be complicated at presentation due to atypical symptoms and/or extraintestinal manifestations (eg, short stature, chronic anemia, unexplained fever, arthritis, mouth ulcers). Pediatric IBD is traditionally diagnosed using endoscopic evaluations of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract with mucosal biopsies for histologic confirmation. Less invasive serologic testing for IBD may be particularly valuable in pediatric patients, particularly given the association between serum immune reactivity and severe disease phenotypes that is drawing increasing attention. These serologic markers may help stratify risk and identify appropriate pediatric candidates for early aggressive therapy. Serologic testing in pediatric patients includes traditional IBD serologic markers such as anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, as well as newer antimicrobial antibodies, including antibodies to outer membrane porin C; I2, a bacterial sequence derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens; and CBir1 flagellin, a colitogenic antigen of the enteric microbial flora in C3H/HeJBir mice strain. Given recent data associating seropositivity with aggressive clinical phenotypes and rapid disease progression, serologic testing may allow early initiation of therapy, maintenance of remission, reduction of corticosteroid exposure, facilitation of mucosal healing, and restoration of normal growth velocity.
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises in part from a genetic predisposition, through the inheritance of a number of contributory genetic polymorphisms. These variant forms of genes may be associated with an abnormal response to normal luminal bacteria. A consistent observation across most populations is that any of three polymorphisms of the Caspase-activated recruitment domain (CARD15) gene are more prevalent in IBD patients as compared with unaffected controls. Similar aberrant responses to bacteria are associated with variants in Autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) and human defensin (HBD-2, -3 and -4) genes. The defective bacterial signal in turn leads to an excessive immune response, presenting as chronic gut inflammation in susceptible individuals. Inconsistent population reports implicate the major histocompatability complex (MHC), that encodes a number of human leukocyte antigens (HLA), MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) or cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Toll-like receptors encoded by the TLR4 or TLR9 genes may also play a role. Recent whole genome scans suggest that a rare variant in the interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) gene may actually protect against IBD. Other implicated genes may affect mucosal cell polarity (Drosophila discs large homologue 5, DLG5) or mucosal transporter function (sodium dependent organic cation transporters, SLC22A4 and SLC22A5). A variant in ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1) may be especially associated with increased risk of UC. While pharmacogenetics is increasingly being used to predict and optimise clinical response to therapy, nutrigenetics may have even greater potential. In many cases, IBD can be controlled through prescribing an elemental diet, which appears to act through modulating cytokine response and changing the gut microbiota. More generally, no single group of dietary items is beneficial or detrimental to all patients, and elimination diets have been used to individualise dietary requirements. However, recognising the nature of the genes involved may suggest a more strategic approach. Pro- or prebiotics will directly influence the microbial flora, while immunonutrition, including omega-3 fatty acids and certain polyphenols, may reduce the symptoms of gut inflammation. The expression of gut transporters may be modulated through various herbal remedies including green tea polyphenols. Such approaches would require that the gene of interest is functioning normally, other than its expression being up or down-regulated. However, new approaches are being developed to overcome the effects of polymorphisms that affect the function of a gene. A combination of human correlation studies with experimental models could provide a rational strategy for optimising nutrigenetic approaches to IBD.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 10/2007; 622(1-2):70-83. DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2007.05.011 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic factors play a significant role in determining inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility. Epidemiologic data support genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of IBD, which include familial aggregation, twin studies, racial and ethnic differences in disease prevalence. Linkage studies have identified several susceptibility genes contained in different genomic regions named IBD1 to IBD9. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most extensively studied genetic regions (IBD1 and IBD3 respectively) in IBD. Mutations of the NOD2 gene are associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and several HLA genes are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the innate immune response against infections by mediating recognition of pathogen-associated microbial patterns. Studying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in molecules involved in bacterial recognition seems to be essential to define genetic backgrounds at risk of IBD. Recently, numerous new genes have been identified to be involved in the genetic susceptibility to IBD: NOD1/Caspase-activation recruitment domains 4 (CARD4), Chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), IL-11, and IL-18 among others. The characterization of these novel genes potentially will lead to the identification of therapeutic agents and clinical assessment of phenotype and prognosis in patients with IBD.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2007; 13(42):5560-70. · 2.43 Impact Factor