Identification of FAKTS as a novel 14-3-3-associated nuclear protein.
ABSTRACT Through bioinformatics and experimental approaches, we have assigned the first biochemical property to a predicted protein product in the human genome as a new 14-3-3 binding protein. 14-3-3 client proteins represent a diverse group of regulatory molecules that often function as signaling integrators in response to various environmental cues and include proteins such as Bad and Foxo. Using 14-3-3 as a probe in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified a novel 14-3-3 binding protein with unknown function, initially designated as clone 546. Confocal microscopy revealed that clone 546 localized to the nucleus of mammalian cells. Additional studies show that the gene encoding clone 546 is expressed in many human tissues, including the thymus, as well as a number of cancer cell lines. The interaction of clone 546 with 14-3-3 was confirmed in mammalian cells. Interestingly, this interaction was markedly enhanced by the expression of activated Akt/PKB, suggesting a phosphorylation dependent event. Mutational analysis was carried out to identify Ser479 as the predominant residue that mediates the clone 546/14-3-3 association. Phosphorylation of Ser479 by AKT/PKB further supports a critical role for Akt/PKB in regulation of the clone 546/14-3-3 interaction. On the basis of these findings, we named this undefined protein FAKTS: Fourteen-three-three associated AKT Substrate.
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 9334 (37%) of human genes have no publications documenting their function and, for those that are published, the number of publications per gene is highly skewed. Furthermore, for reasons not clear, the entry of new gene names into the literature has slowed in recent years. If we are to better understand human/mammalian biology and complete the catalog of human gene function, it is important to finish predicting putative functions for these genes based upon existing experimental evidence. A global meta-analysis (GMA) of all publicly available GEO two-channel human microarray datasets (3551 experiments total) was conducted to identify genes with recurrent, reproducible patterns of co-regulation across different conditions. Patterns of co-expression were divided into parallel (i.e. genes are up and down-regulated together) and anti-parallel. Several ranking methods to predict a gene's function based on its top 20 co-expressed gene pairs were compared. In the best method, 34% of predicted Gene Ontology (GO) categories matched exactly with the known GO categories for approximately 5000 genes analyzed versus only 3% for random gene sets. Only 2.4% of co-expressed gene pairs were found as co-occurring gene pairs in MEDLINE. Via a GO enrichment analysis, genes co-expressed in parallel with the query gene were frequently associated with the same GO categories, whereas anti-parallel genes were not. Combining parallel and anti-parallel genes for analysis resulted in fewer significant GO categories, suggesting they are best analyzed separately. Expression databases contain much unexpected genetic knowledge that has not yet been reported in the literature. A total of 1642 Human genes with unknown function were differentially expressed in at least 30 experiments. Data matrix available upon request.Bioinformatics 06/2009; 25(13):1694-701. · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) acts directly in diverse DNA processing events, including replication, mismatch repair (MMR), and double strand break repair (DSBR), and it was also recently described to function as damage sensor and apoptosis inducer following DNA damage. In contrast, 14-3-3 proteins are regulatory phosphorserine/threonine binding proteins involved in the control of diverse cellular events, including cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis signaling. hEXO1 is regulated by post-translation Ser/Thr phosphorylation in a yet not fully clarified manner, but evidently three phosphorylation sites are specifically induced by replication inhibition leading to protein ubiquitination and degradation. We demonstrate direct and robust interaction between hEXO1 and six of the seven 14-3-3 isoforms in vitro, suggestive of a novel protein interaction network between DNA repair and cell cycle control. Binding experiments reveal weak affinity of the more selective isoform 14-3-3σ but both 14-3-3 isoforms η and σ significantly stimulate hEXO1 activity, indicating that these regulatory proteins exert a common regulation mode on hEXO1. Results demonstrate that binding involves the phosphorable amino acid S746 in hEXO1 and most likely a second unidentified binding motif. 14-3-3 associations do not appear to directly influence hEXO1 in vitro nuclease activity or in vitro DNA replication initiation. Moreover, specific phosphorylation variants, including hEXO1 S746A, are efficiently imported to the nucleus; to associate with PCNA in distinct replication foci and respond to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), indicating that 14-3-3 binding does not involve regulating the subcellular distribution of hEXO1. Altogether, these results suggest that association may be related to regulation of hEXO1 availability during the DNA damage response to plausibly prevent extensive DNA resection at the damage site, as supported by recent studies.DNA repair 03/2012; 11(3):267-77. · 3.36 Impact Factor