Through bioinformatics and experimental approaches, we have assigned the first biochemical property to a predicted protein product in the human genome as a new 14-3-3 binding protein. 14-3-3 client proteins represent a diverse group of regulatory molecules that often function as signaling integrators in response to various environmental cues and include proteins such as Bad and Foxo. Using 14-3-3 as a probe in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified a novel 14-3-3 binding protein with unknown function, initially designated as clone 546. Confocal microscopy revealed that clone 546 localized to the nucleus of mammalian cells. Additional studies show that the gene encoding clone 546 is expressed in many human tissues, including the thymus, as well as a number of cancer cell lines. The interaction of clone 546 with 14-3-3 was confirmed in mammalian cells. Interestingly, this interaction was markedly enhanced by the expression of activated Akt/PKB, suggesting a phosphorylation dependent event. Mutational analysis was carried out to identify Ser479 as the predominant residue that mediates the clone 546/14-3-3 association. Phosphorylation of Ser479 by AKT/PKB further supports a critical role for Akt/PKB in regulation of the clone 546/14-3-3 interaction. On the basis of these findings, we named this undefined protein FAKTS: Fourteen-three-three associated AKT Substrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-3 plays important roles in the growth and survival of hematopoietic progenitor cells, processes modeled in studies of the IL-3-dependent cell line Ba/F3. To gain insights into molecular mechanisms governing cell fate, we examined the patterns of proteins up-regulated following stimulation of Ba/F3 cells with IL-3. Through two-dimensional electrophoresis and proteomics-based approaches, we identified 11 proteins. Of these, expression of 14-3-3gamma was significantly increased by IL-3 stimulation at both the transcriptional and translational levels. 14-3-3gamma overexpression in Ba/F3 cells abrogated dependence on IL-3 and was associated with activation of PI3K and MAPK signaling cascades, suggesting that the functions of 14-3-3gamma in normal hematopoietic progenitors are to promote survival and growth through the activation of distinct signaling pathways. Additionally, the up-regulation of Bax and Bad was seen with the ablation of 14-3-3gamma, resulting in cell death. These results indicate that deregulated expression of 14-3-3gamma may contribute to malignant transformation, possibly providing a new target for therapeutic intervention in hematopoietic neoplasms.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2009; 182(2):1050-60. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.182.2.1050 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PARP inhibitors combined with DNA-damage inducing cytostatic agents can lead to effective tumor therapy. However, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1; EC 220.127.116.11) induces the activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway, which can counteract the effectiveness of this therapy. To understand the role of Akt activation in the combined use of cytostatic agent and PARP inhibition, we used taxol (paclitaxel) as an antineoplastic agent, which targets microtubules and up-regulates mitochondrial ROS production, together with (i) pharmacological inhibition (PJ-34), (ii) siRNA knock-down and (iii) transdominant expression of the DNA binding domain of PARP-1. In all cases, PARP-1 inhibition leads to suppressed poly-ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins, prevention of NAD(+) depletion and significant resistance against taxol induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel induced a moderate increase in Akt activation, which was significantly augmented by PARP inhibition, suggesting that PARP inhibition-induced Akt activation could be responsible for the cytostatic resistance. When activation of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway was prevented by LY-294002 or Akt Inhibitor IV, the cytoprotective effect of PARP inhibition was significantly diminished showing that the activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt cascade had significantly contributed to the cytostatic resistance. Our study demonstrates that drug-induced drug resistance can be responsible for the reduced efficacy of antitumor treatment. Although inhibition of PARP-1 can promote cell death in tumor cells by the inhibition of DNA repair, PARP-inhibition promoted activation of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway can counteract this facilitating effect, and can cause cytostatic resistance. We suggest augmenting PARP inhibition by the inhibition of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway for antitumor therapy.
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