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Programmed cell death-4 tumor suppressor protein contributes to retinoic acid-induced terminal granulocytic differentiation human myeloid leukemia cells

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Molecular Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 4.5). 02/2007; 5(1):95-108. DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0125
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ABSTRACT Programmed cell death-4 (PDCD4) is a recently discovered tumor suppressor protein that inhibits protein synthesis by suppression of translation initiation. We investigated the role and the regulation of PDCD4 in the terminal differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Expression of PDCD4 was markedly up-regulated during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced granulocytic differentiation in NB4 and HL60 AML cell lines and in primary human promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3) and CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells but not in differentiation-resistant NB4.R1 and HL60R cells. Induction of PDCD4 expression was associated with nuclear translocation of PDCD4 in NB4 cells undergoing granulocytic differentiation but not in NB4.R1 cells. Other granulocytic differentiation inducers such as DMSO and arsenic trioxide also induced PDCD4 expression in NB4 cells. In contrast, PDCD4 was not up-regulated during monocytic/macrophagic differentiation induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in NB4 cells or by ATRA in THP1 myelomonoblastic cells. Knockdown of PDCD4 by RNA interference (siRNA) inhibited ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation and reduced expression of key proteins known to be regulated by ATRA, including p27(Kip1) and DAP5/p97, and induced c-myc and Wilms' tumor 1, but did not alter expression of c-jun, p21(Waf1/Cip1), and tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was found to regulate PDCD4 expression because inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 and wortmannin or of mTOR by rapamycin induced PDCD4 protein and mRNA expression. In conclusion, our data suggest that PDCD4 expression contributes to ATRA-induced granulocytic but not monocytic/macrophagic differentiation. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway constitutively represses PDCD4 expression in AML, and ATRA induces PDCD4 through inhibition of this pathway.

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    • "We have also shown that ATRA and ATO inhibit the activity PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p70S6 kinase in APL cells [33] [34]. The current study is in agreement with our previous findings that ATRA inhibits translation initiation by multiple mechanisms, including inhibition of initiation factors and induction of PDCD4 and DAP5 (inhibitors of translation initiation), inhibition of p- 4E-BP1 and EF4E (Figure 11) [32] [33] [34]. DAP5 and PDCD4, a novel tumor suppressor protein, were recently identified as inhibitors of translation initiation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Translation initiation and activity of eukaryotic initiation factor-alpha (eIF2α), the rate-limiting step of translation initiation, is often overactivated in malignant cells. Here, we investigated the regulation and role of eIF2α in acute promyelocytic (APL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in response to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), the front-line therapies in APL. ATRA and ATO induce Ser-51 phosphorylation (inactivation) of eIF2α, through the induction of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) and PKR, but not other eIF2α kinases, such as GCN2 and PERK in APL (NB4) and AML cells (HL60, U937, and THP-1). Inhibition of eIF2α reduced the expression of cellular proteins that are involved in apoptosis (DAP5/p97), cell cycle (p21Waf1/Cip1), differentiation (TG2) and induced those regulating proliferation (c-myc) and survival (p70S6K). PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is involved in regulation of eIF2α through PKCδ/PKR axis. PKCδ and p-eIF2α protein expression levels revealed a significant association between the reduced levels of PKCδ (P = 0.0378) and peIF2 (P = 0.0041) and relapses in AML patients (n = 47). In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that PKCδ regulates/inhibits eIF2α through induction of PKR in AML cells and reveals a novel signaling mechanism regulating translation initiation.
    07/2012; 2012:482905. DOI:10.1155/2012/482905
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    • "In a neuroendocrine cell line elevated levels of Pdcd4 induced p21 Waf1/Cip1 [12]. In contrast to these data the knockdown of Pdcd4 just as well induced p21 Waf1/Cip1 in HeLa and HCT116 cells [13], while in AML (acute myeloid leukemia) cells reduced Pdcd4 levels did not alter p21 Waf1/Cip1 [14]. These findings are well in line with other data showing no correlation of Pdcd4 levels and the expression of different proteins associated with cell cycle and apoptosis in various tumor cell lines [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor Pdcd4 is involved in multiple pathways. Considering its biological action conflicting data in the literature exist and, consequently, our own studies point to a cell type specific action of Pdcd4. In the present study, using several Pdcd4 knock down cell lines we succeeded to identify angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) as a gene up-regulated on the mRNA and protein level. The subsequent enhanced peptide secretion forced wild type Bon-1 cells in a neoplastic direction demonstrated by increased proliferation and colony formation while cell adhesion was decreased. Most likely, the stimulation of Ang-2 is in part mediated by increased activation of AP-1 but different signal transduction pathways may also be involved since we found opposite activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK7ERK pathways (both known to regulate in Ang-2 expression). Ang-2 is a modulator of vascular remodeling. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of supernatants from Pdcd4 knock-down cell lines on endothelial cells. Again, we detected reduced cell adhesion and increased colony formation. Probably, the most impressive effect was described on tube formation in a model for angiogenesis. Tube length and junctions of endothelial cells treated with conditioned medium from Pdcd4 knock-down cells were considerably increased. Both, up-regulation of Ang-2 and down-regulation of Pdcd4 are described for many tumors. However, this is the first study showing a direct impact of Pdcd4 on Ang-2 levels and, thereby, angiogenesis. Our data suggest a completely new mechanism for Pdcd4 to act as a tumor suppressor rendering Pdcd4 an attractive target for new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2012; 1823(4):789-99. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2012.01.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    • "suppression in Huh7 cells in contrast to the results in which LY294002 reversed the TPA-induced PDCD4 suppression in HEK293 cells [13]. Although the pathway other than the PI3K/Akt/mTOR seems to be dominant for the TPA-induced PDCD4 suppression in Huh7 cells, the analyses of phospho-Akt and phospho-S6K indicate that the PI3K– Akt–mTOR–S6K signaling cascade also contributes at least partly in the TPA-induced PDCD4 degradation (Fig. 3C, Fig. 8) in accordance with previous reports [13] [23] [24]. It is also possible that the pathway other than the PI3K/Akt/mTOR is accelerated by TPA under the presence of TGF-β1 because the phosphorylation of Akt and S6K has been suppressed in TGF-β1-treated Huh7 cells (Fig. 9). "
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) induces apoptosis in normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. PDCD4 is involved in TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis via the Smad pathway. The tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbor-13-acetate (TPA), a protein kinase C stimulator, inhibits TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of TPA action on PDCD4 expression remain to be elucidated. Therefore. the regulatory mechanism of PDCD4 expression by PKC was investigated. The treatment of the human hepatoma cell line, Huh7 with TPA suppressed PDCD4 protein expression and TGF-beta1 failed to increase the PDCD4 protein expression. PKC inhibitors Ro-31-8425 or bisindolylmaleimide-1-hydrocholoride (pan-PKC inhibitors) and rottlerin (PKCdelta inhibitor), but not Go6976 (PKCalpha inhibitor), enhanced the induction of PDCD4 protein by TGF-beta1. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCdelta and epsilon, but not PKCalpha, augmented the TGF-beta1-stimulated PDCD4 protein expression. However, TPA or pan-PKC inhibitor did not alter the PDCD4 mRNA expression either under basal- and TGF-beta1-treated conditions. The down-regulation of PDCD4 by TPA was restored by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These data suggest that two isoforms of PKCs are involved in the regulation of the PDCD4 protein expression related to the proteasomal degradation pathway.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2010; 1803(9):1020-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2010.05.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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