Validation of a brief dietary assessment to guide counseling for cardiovascular disease risk reduction in an underserved population
ABSTRACT Brief dietary assessment tools are needed to guide counseling in underserved populations to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The Dietary Risk Assessment is one such tool modified over time to reflect emerging evidence concerning diet and CVD risk.
To examine the capacity of the modified Dietary Risk Assessment tool to measure aspects of diet quality in a sample of underserved, midlife (aged 40 to 64 years) women, by comparing Dietary Risk Assessment results to those of a longer food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and with serum carotenoids.
This study used baseline data from women enrolled in a CVD risk reduction intervention trial. The Dietary Risk Assessment was administered to 236 women and results were compared to those from a longer FFQ administered to 104 women, and to serum carotenoids results from all participants.
Correlations between Dietary Risk Assessment indexes and corresponding measures from the FFQ were statistically significant: fruit and vegetable, r=-0.53 (P<0.0001, correlation is negative as a lower Dietary Risk Assessment score indicates greater fruit and vegetable intake); saturated fat, r=0.60 (P<0.0001). In linear regression models stratified by smoking and adjusted for body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and age, the Dietary Risk Assessment fruit and vegetable index was significantly associated with serum carotenoids (parameter estimate for nonsmokers -0.22, P=0.01; smokers -0.45, P=0.003). Correlation coefficients between Dietary Risk Assessment total score and three diet quality index scores derived from FFQ variables were statistically significant, ranging in magnitude from 0.57 to 0.60.
The modified Dietary Risk Assessment provides a reasonable assessment of dietary factors associated with CVD risk; thus, it is appropriate for use to guide dietary counseling in CVD prevention programs for underserved, midlife, women.
- SourceAvailable from: Felicia Hill-Briggs[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In low-income and underserved populations, financial hardship and multiple competing roles and responsibilities lead to difficulties in lifestyle change for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. To improve CVD prevention behaviors, we adapted, pilot-tested, and evaluated a problem-solving intervention designed to address barriers to lifestyle change. The sample consisted of 81 participants from 3 underserved populations, including 28 Hispanic or non-Hispanic white women in a western community (site 1), 31 African-American women in a semirural southern community (site 2), and 22 adults in an Appalachian community (site 3). Incorporating focus group findings, we assessed a standardized intervention involving 6-to-8 week group sessions devoted to problem-solving in the fall of 2009. Most sessions were attended by 76.5% of participants, demonstrating participant adoption and engagement. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in problem-solving skills (P < .001) and perceived stress (P < .05). Diet, physical activity, and weight remained stable, although 72% of individuals reported maintenance or increase in daily fruit and vegetable intake, and 67% reported maintenance or increase in daily physical activity. Study results suggest the intervention was acceptable to rural, underserved populations and effective in training them in problem-solving skills and stress management for CVD risk reduction.Preventing chronic disease 03/2014; 11:E32. DOI:10.5888/pcd11.130249 · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Most primary care clinicians lack the skills and resources to offer effective lifestyle and medication (L&M) counseling to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Thus, effective and feasible CHD prevention programs are needed for typical practice settings. OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of a combined L&M intervention to reduce CHD risk offered in counselor-delivered and web-based formats. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A comparative effectiveness trial in 5 diverse family medicine practices in North Carolina. Participants were established patients, aged 35 to 79 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, and at moderate to high risk for CHD (10-year Framingham Risk Score [FRS], ≥10%). INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to counselor-delivered or web-based format, each including 4 intensive and 3 maintenance sessions. After randomization, both formats used a web-based decision aid showing potential CHD risk reduction associated with L&M risk-reducing strategies. Participants chose the risk-reducing strategies they wished to follow. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was within-group change in FRS at 4-month follow-up. Other measures included standardized assessments of blood pressure, blood lipid levels, lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence. Acceptability and cost-effectiveness were also assessed. Outcomes were assessed at 4 and 12 months. RESULTS Of 2274 screened patients, 385 were randomized (192 counselor; 193 web): mean age, 62 years; 24% African American; and mean FRS, 16.9%. Follow-up at 4 and 12 months included 91% and 87% of the randomized participants, respectively. There was a sustained reduction in FRS at both 4 months (primary outcome) and 12 months for both counselor-based (-2.3% [95% CI, -3.0% to -1.6%] and -1.9% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1%], respectively) and web-based groups (-1.5% [95% CI, -2.2% to -0.9%] and -1.7% [95% CI, -2.6% to -0.8%] respectively). At 4 months, the adjusted difference in FRS between groups was -1.0% (95% CI, -1.8% to -0.1%) (P = .03), and at 12 months, it was -0.6% (95% CI, -1.7% to 0.5%) (P = .30). The 12-month costs from the payer perspective were $207 and $110 per person for the counselor- and web-based interventions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Both intervention formats reduced CHD risk through 12-month follow-up. The web format was less expensive. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01245686.JAMA Internal Medicine 05/2014; 174(7). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.1984 · 13.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined cross-sectional associations among neighborhood- and individual-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and support for obesity prevention polices in rural eastern North Carolina adults. We examined perceived neighborhood barriers to a healthful lifestyle, and associations between neighborhood barriers to healthy eating and PA, participants' support for seven obesity prevention policies, and dependent variables of self-reported dietary and PA behaviors, and measured body mass index (BMI) (n = 366 study participants). We then used participants' residential addresses and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to assess neighborhood-level factors related to access to healthy food and PA opportunities. Correlational analyses and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine associations between neighborhood-level factors related to a healthful lifestyle and dietary and PA behaviors, BMI, and obesity prevention policy support. The most commonly reported neighborhood barriers (from a list of 18 potential barriers) perceived by participants included: not enough bicycle lanes and sidewalks, not enough affordable exercise places, too much crime, and no place to buy a quick, healthy meal to go. Higher diet quality was inversely related to perceived and GIS-assessed neighborhood nutrition barriers. There were no significant associations between neighborhood barriers and PA. More perceived neighborhood barriers were positively associated with BMI. Support for obesity prevention policy change was positively associated with perceptions of more neighborhood barriers. Neighborhood factors that promote a healthful lifestyle were associated with higher diet quality and lower BMI. Individuals who perceived more neighborhood-level barriers to healthy eating and PA usually supported policies to address those barriers. Future studies should examine mechanisms to garner such support for health-promoting neighborhood changes.Journal of Community Health 08/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9927-6 · 1.28 Impact Factor