Enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis was observed in 3 patients with intestinal failure of unknown cause. Enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis is a congenitally acquired life-threatening malabsorptive condition with a unique clinical phenotype paired with a histologically identifiable disease pattern. Two cases were first presented at the Ninth International Small Bowel Transplantation Symposium, Brussels 2005, and were subsequently published (N Engl J Med 2006;355:270). We now present the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of the gastric antrum, small bowel, and colon in greater detail. The clinical phenotype of the patients was unusual in that the affected patients demonstrated profound malabsorption of all nutrients, except water, from birth. The small intestine in each patient demonstrated almost no abnormality, except a near absence of endocrine cells in the mucosa. The colon appeared similarly affected. Known causes of congenital malabsorption, inflammatory, and infectious causes of diarrhea were excluded. The defect is secondary to point mutations in NEUROG3, which result in an arrest of endocrine cell development in the small intestine and colon. This work describes the pathologic characterization of enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis using routine techniques. The pattern of injury is distinct from other histopathologically assessed congenital malabsorptive conditions such as microvillus inclusion disease, tufting enteropathy, and abetalipoproteinemia. It is also easily distinguished from inflammatory conditions such as food allergy, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, autoimmune enteropathy, IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, and X-linked inheritance), and inflammatory bowel disease. The histopathology of disease is similar to what has been found transiently in a single patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many drugs have been known to cause diarrhea, although their mechanism of action has not been well described. The gastrointestinal tract may become dysregulated when exposed to a drug that could disrupt mechanisms controlling mucosal permeability, transport, motility, and gut metabolism. This review examines the mechanism by which drugs induce diarrhea within the broad classification of watery, inflammatory, and fatty characteristics of the stool. Treatment may vary depending on this classification and usually includes withdrawal of the offending drug. However, in some cases, diarrhea may resolve with continued use or through nonspecific agents, such as Lomotil (Pfizer, New York, NY) or loperamide.
Current Gastroenterology Reports 11/2007; 9(5):365-72. DOI:10.1007/s11894-007-0044-x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) form the basis of the largest endocrine system in the body. They secrete multiple regulatory molecules which control physiological and homeostatic functions, particularly postprandial secretion and motility. Their key purpose is to act as sensors of luminal contents, either in a classical endocrine fashion, or by a paracrine effect on proximate cells, notably vagal afferent fibres. They also play a pivotal role in the control of food intake, and emerging data add roles in mucosal immunity and repair. We propose that EEC are fundamental in several gastrointestinal pathologies, notably Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome, infectious enteritis, and possibly inflammatory bowel disease. Further work is needed to fully illustrate the importance, detailed biology and therapeutic potential of these frequently overlooked cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A generalized absence of enteroendocrine cells characterizes 2 diarrheal/malabsorptive diseases, namely, enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome 1. However, it is not routine for pathologists to examine mucosal biopsies for enteroendocrine cells in cases of chronic diarrheal illness. Our primary aim was to prospectively examine colonic mucosa for loss of enteroendocrine cells using chromogranin A immunohistochemistry for diagnostic purposes. Our secondary aim was to investigate enterochromaffin cells as a subset of enteroendocrine cells, using serotonin (5HT) immunohistochemistry; we hypothesized that other causes of diarrhea due to loss of enteroendocrine cell subsets are missed by evaluating enteroendocrine cells alone. Our approach was limited to patients with chronic unexplained diarrhea partly selected by referring physicians who considered the patients problematic. Seven problematic patients with reduced enteroendocrine or enterochromaffin cells were collected over a 9-month period and placed in group A. Three group A patients demonstrated reduced enteroendocrine cells relative to controls, and they were later diagnosed as having enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis (n = 1) and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome 1 (n = 2). Four group A patients had reduced enterochromaffin cells but normal enteroendocrine cells. These 4 patients had conditions such as congenital diarrhea, mild graft-versus-host disease, acquired childhood chronic diarrhea, and diarrhea post lung transplant. The reduced enterochromaffin cells in the graft-versus-host disease patient inspired a third aim, that is, to investigate whether a loss of enterochromaffin cells would be a generalized defect seen in patients with mild colonic graft-versus-host disease (group B). However, no loss of enterochromaffin cells was detected in group B. Two methods of enumerating endocrine cells were used and demonstrated 67% agreement.
Human pathology 04/2009; 40(7):1006-14. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2008.12.016 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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