Dental plaque formation and salivary mutans streptococci in schoolchildren after use of xylitol-containing chewing gum.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a fixed daily dose of xylitol on mutans streptococci in saliva and the amount of visible dental plaque. A second aim was to explore if the possible effects differed between children with and without caries experience.
The study was designed as a double-blind randomized controlled trial with two parallel arms. All pupils (n=149) in grades 1-6 in a comprehensive school in northern Sweden were invited, and 128 children (mean age=12.7 years) consented to participate. The children were stratified as having caries experience (DMFS/dmfs>or=1) or not before the random allocation to a test or control group. The control group (A) was given two pellets containing sorbitol and maltitol three times daily for 4 weeks, and the test group (B) received corresponding pellets with xylitol as single sweetener (total dose=6.18 g day). Clinical scoring and saliva samples were collected at baseline and immediately after the test period. The outcome measures were visible plaque index, salivary mutans streptococci counts and salivary lactic acid production.
The amount of visible plaque was significantly reduced in both groups after 4 weeks (P<0.05). Likewise, the sucrose-induced lactic acid formation in saliva diminished in both groups (P<0.05). The proportion of mutans streptococci decreased significantly in the test group compared to baseline, but not in the control group (P<0.05). The alterations in the test group seemed most prominent among children without previous caries experience.
The results suggest that chewing gum with xylitol or sorbitol/maltitol can reduce the amount of dental plaque and acid production in saliva in schoolchildren, but only the xylitol-containing gum may also interfere with the microbial composition.
- SourceAvailable from: Cristiane De Almeida Baldini Cardoso[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives Analyze the effect of varnishes containing xylitol alone or combined with fluoride on the remineralization of artificial enamel caries lesions in vitro. Methods: Bovine enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 7 groups (n = 15/group). Artificial caries lesions were produced by immersion in 30 ml of lactic acid buffer containing 3 mM CaCl2•2H2O, 3 mM KH2PO4, 6 μM tetraetil metil diphosphanate (pH 5.0) for 6 days. The enamel blocks were treated with the following varnishes: 10% xylitol; 20% xylitol; 10% xylitol plus F (5% NaF); 20% xylitol plus F (5% NaF); Duofluorid™ (6% NaF, 2.71% F + 6% CaF2), Duraphat™ (5% NaF, positive control) and placebo (no-F/xylitol, negative control). The varnishes were applied in a thin layer and removed after 6 h. The blocks were subjected to pH-cycles (demineralization–2 h/remineralization-22 during 8 days) and enamel alterations were quantified by surface hardness and transversal microradiography. The percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR), the integrated mineral loss and lesion depth were statistically analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p < 0.05). Results: Enamel surface remineralization was significantly increased by Duraphat™, 10% xylitol plus F and 20% xylitol plus F formulations, while significant subsurface mineral remineralization could be seen only for enamel treated with Duraphat™, Duofluorid™ and 20% xylitol formulations. Conclusions: 20% xylitol varnishes seem to be promising alternatives to increase remineralization of artificial caries lesions. Clinical significance: effective vehicles are desirable for caries control. Xylitol varnishes seem to be promising alternatives to increase enamel remineralization in vitro, which should be confirmed by in situ and clinical studies.Journal of Dentistry 08/2014; · 2.84 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Xylitol has the ability to reduce the adherence of Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans), which can make it easier to remove plaque, decrease acid production and inhibit dental caries. There are few reports on the effects of xylitol on the expression of the virulence related genes in S. mutans. This study examined the inhibitory effect of chewing gum containing xylitol on glucan synthesis related gene expression of S. mutans. Participants were voluntarily recruited for a women's oral health prevention program, classified into two groups(a control and a xylitol group), and then followed for 2 years. Twenty salivary samples were randomly selected from each group. Colony count and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze the characteristics of S. mutans. The following results were obtained: The S. mutans counts decreased steadily in the xylitol group over the study period(pTHE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY. 01/2009; 36(4).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate suppression of Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) colonization by long-term xylitol consumption among pregnant women who can easily get bad oral hygiene status during pregnancy and breast feeding. Participants were voluntarily recruited for a pregnant women's oral health prevention program, classified into two groups(a control and a xylitol group), and then followed for 18 months. Stimulated whole saliva was collected in the afternoon(1:00-3:00 p.m.) at baseline, 6 months, 12months, and 18 months. Information regarding oral health behavior(tooth brushing frequency and regular dental visits) was obtained via a questionnaire. S. mutans counts of the xylitol group decreased considerably between baseline and the re-examinations at 6, 12, and 18 months. Although the S. mutans counts decreased for all time points compared to baseline in the control group, these differences did not reach significance except 18 months. Regular chewing of xylitol gum over a long period may lead to decrease the colony counts of S. mutans.Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. 01/2010; 11(1).