Simkania negevensis in bronchoalveolar lavage of lung transplant recipients: a possible association with acute rejection.
ABSTRACT Simkania negevensis is a novel organism closely related to chlamydiae. The organism has been associated with community acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The prevalence and pathogenic potential of S. negevensis is not known in lung transplant recipients.
In this multicenter study comparative analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in lung transplants (Tx) and kidney Tx, immunocompromised and nasopharyngeal (NP) washes of immunocompetent patients was done. The BAL specimens were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for C. pneumoniae and S. negevensis. Selected S. negevensis positive PCR cases were confirmed by culture.
In the initial 41 BAL samples S. negevensis was detected in 97.5% (40/41) of lung transplant recipients as compared to 14.1% (1/7) in other organ transplant recipients (P<0.0001). In the sequential samples of 19 lung transplant recipients, 59% (24/41) had concomitant positive PCR and rejection as compared to 30% (3/10) who had negative PCR but had rejection (P=0.16). S. negevensis infection had hazard ratio of 3.29 (95% CI: 0.73-14.76; P=0.11) for developing acute rejection.
S. negevensis is highly prevalent in liver Tx recipients and may be associated with acute rejection.
Article: Emended description of the order Chlamydiales, proposal of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov. and Simkaniaceae fam. nov., each containing one monotypic genus, revised taxonomy of the family Chlamydiaceae, including a new genus and five new species, and standards for the identification of organisms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current taxonomic classification of Chlamydia is based on limited phenotypic, morphologic and genetic criteria. This classification does not take into account recent analysis of the ribosomal operon or recently identified obligately intracellular organisms that have a chlamydia-like developmental cycle of replication. Neither does it provide a systematic rationale for identifying new strains. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 23S rRNA genes are presented with corroborating genetic and phenotypic information to show that the order Chlamydiales contains at least four distinct groups at the family level and that within the Chlamydiaceae are two distinct lineages which branch into nine separate clusters. In this report a reclassification of the order Chlamydiales and its current taxa is proposed. This proposal retains currently known strains with > 90% 16S rRNA identity in the family Chlamydiaceae and separates other chlamydia-like organisms that have 80-90% 16S rRNA relatedness to the Chlamydiaceae into new families. Chlamydiae that were previously described as 'Candidatus Parachlamydia acanthamoebae' Amann, Springer, Schönhuber, Ludwig, Schmid, Müller and Michel 1997, become members of Parachlamydiaceae fam. nov., Parachlamydia acanthamoebae gen. nov., sp. now. 'Simkania' strain Z becomes the founding member of Simkaniaceae fam. nov., Simkania negevensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The fourth group, which includes strain WSU 86-1044, was left unnamed. The Chlamydiaceae, which currently has only the genus Chlamydia, is divided into two genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila gen. nov. Two new species, Chlamydia muridarum sp. nov. and Chlamydia suis sp. nov., join Chlamydia trachomatis in the emended genus Chlamydia. Chlamydophila gen. nov. assimilates the current species, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci, to form Chlamydophila pecorum comb. nov., Chlamydophila pneumoniae comb. nov. and Chlamydophila psittaci comb. nov. Three new Chlamydophila species are derived from Chlamydia psittaci: Chlamydophila abortus gen. nov., sp. nov., Chlamydophila caviae gen. nov., sp. nov. and Chlamydophila felis gen. nov., sp. nov. Emended descriptions for the order Chlamydiales and for the family Chlamydiaceae are provided. These families, genera and species are readily distinguished by analysis of signature sequences in the 16S and 23S ribosomal genes.International journal of systematic bacteriology 04/1999; 49 Pt 2:415-40. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The release of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the soluble forms of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) from human pulmonary type II-like epithelial cells (A549) after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was analysed. RSV infection alone induced a time- and RSV dose-dependent IL-8 and IL-6 release from A549 cells. Furthermore, the soluble form of the TNF-RI was also secreted in a time- and RSV dose-dependent fashion. The soluble TNF-RII was not detected in the cell supernatant of infected epithelial cells. The effect of various cytokines [IL-1 alpha/beta, TNF-alpha/beta, IL-3, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2)] and colony-stimulating factors [granulocyte (G)-CSF; granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF] on the IL-8 release from A549 cells was also studied. Our data show that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 alpha/beta and TNF-alpha/beta induced an IL-8 release in non-infected A549 cells, and increased the IL-8 release of RSV-infected A549 cells synergistically. In addition, IL-3, G-CSF, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 2, albeit at high concentrations, induced a low IL-8 release from non-infected A549 cells. The enhanced IL-8 secretion rates were accompanied with elevated cytoplasmic IL-8 mRNA steady state levels, as was shown by Northern blot analysis. Cellular co-culture experiments performed with A549 cells and polymorphonuclear granulocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that increased IL-8 amounts were secreted in the co-culture of non-infected as well as RSV-infected cells. The present study suggests a central role for the airway epithelium during RSV infection with regard to cytokine and cytokine receptor release, resulting in a recruitment and activation of inflammatory and immune effector cells. Our data also suggest that paracrine cytokine networks and cell-cell contact are involved in the regulation of IL-8 secretion within the microenvironment of the bronchial epithelium.Immunology 06/1994; 82(1):126-33. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with asthma and atherosclerosis. Smooth muscle cells represent host cells for chlamydiae during chronic infection. In this study we demonstrated that C. pneumoniae infection of human smooth muscle cells in vitro increased production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as shown by reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In contrast, levels of platelet-derived growth factor A-chain mRNA were not affected after infection. The stimulation of bFGF and IL-6 production was most effective when viable chlamydiae were used as inoculum. Furthermore, inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis with chloramphenicol prevented up-regulation of IL-6 and bFGF in infected cells. Addition of IL-6 antibody to infected cultures diminished bFGF expression, indicating involvement of produced IL-6. These findings suggest that chlamydial infection of smooth muscle cells elicits a cytokine response that may contribute to structural remodeling of the airway wall in chronic asthma and to fibrous plaque formation in atherosclerosis.Infection and Immunity 07/2000; 68(6):3635-41. · 4.07 Impact Factor