An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?
Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Departments of Medicine and Physiology and Biophysics, 715 Albany Street, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA.The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 04/2007; 103(3-5):642-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.010
It has been suggested that the major source of vitamin D should come from dietary sources and not sun exposure. However, the major fortified dietary source of vitamin D is milk which often does not contain at least 80% of what is stated on the label. Fish has been touted as an excellent source of vitamin D especially oily fish including salmon and mackerel. Little is known about the effect of various cooking conditions on the vitamin D content in fish. We initiated a study and evaluated the vitamin D content in several species of fish and also evaluated the effect of baking and frying on the vitamin D content. Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.
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- "Cooking oils are not fortified in the USA and Canada (Calvo et al., 2004). However frying consumables in vitamin D fortified fats may result in loss of about 50% of vitamin D (Lu et al., 2007) so cooking with very little oil is advisable, i.e., baking or broiling (oil-free) instead of frying (shallow or deep). However, overconsumption of these products may exacerbate other health issues related to metabolic syndrome. "
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- "This wide vitamin A to vitamin D ratio range is the reason why fish liver oils often need further processing . In fresh fish products we observe a huge variation in the vitamin D 3 content per 100 g wet weight (Egaas and Lambertsen, 1979; Takeuchi et al., 1984, 1986; Kobayashi et al., 1995; Mattila et al., 1995a, 1997; Ostermeyer and Schmidt, 2006; Lu et al., 2007; Byrdwell et al., 2013) (Table 1). Large variations in vitamin D 3 content were found within the same species, but also between the different fish species. "
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- "The vitamin D fraction was chromatographed on a straight phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collected fractions were chromatographed on a reverse phase HPLC to quantify the vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 content based on the UV absorption according to the study performed by Lu et al. (2007). "
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