An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?

Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Departments of Medicine and Physiology and Biophysics, 715 Albany Street, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 04/2007; 103(3-5):642-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.010
Source: PubMed


It has been suggested that the major source of vitamin D should come from dietary sources and not sun exposure. However, the major fortified dietary source of vitamin D is milk which often does not contain at least 80% of what is stated on the label. Fish has been touted as an excellent source of vitamin D especially oily fish including salmon and mackerel. Little is known about the effect of various cooking conditions on the vitamin D content in fish. We initiated a study and evaluated the vitamin D content in several species of fish and also evaluated the effect of baking and frying on the vitamin D content. Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.

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Available from: Tai C Chen, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "This wide vitamin A to vitamin D ratio range is the reason why fish liver oils often need further processing . In fresh fish products we observe a huge variation in the vitamin D 3 content per 100 g wet weight (Egaas and Lambertsen, 1979; Takeuchi et al., 1984, 1986; Kobayashi et al., 1995; Mattila et al., 1995a, 1997; Ostermeyer and Schmidt, 2006; Lu et al., 2007; Byrdwell et al., 2013) (Table 1). Large variations in vitamin D 3 content were found within the same species, but also between the different fish species. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g. in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Base on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7 % of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3 % are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to reach sufficient vitam
    Frontiers in Physiology 07/2014; 5:248. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00248 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "The vitamin D fraction was chromatographed on a straight phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collected fractions were chromatographed on a reverse phase HPLC to quantify the vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 content based on the UV absorption according to the study performed by Lu et al. (2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the influence of four cooking methods (baking, boiling, microwaving and frying) was evaluated on the nutritional value of kutum roach. Proximate, fatty acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents and also nutritional quality indices (NQI) of kutum roach were investigated before and after cooking treatment. All treated samples showed increase in protein, ash and lipid contents and decrease in the content of total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) in comparison to raw fish fillets (control group). Cooking methods had no significant effect on omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) except for frying that increased it. Nonetheless, all of the cooking methods reduced vitamin B1, A and D contents. Boiling significantly decreased mineral contents including Na, K, P and Zn. Considering the overall nutritional quality indices, vitamin and mineral contents, baking is the best cooking method among other applied methods.
    Food Chemistry 04/2014; 148C:86-91. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.012 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "In Denmark, no foods have, however, been enriched with vitamin D since 1985 [6]. The availability of few food sources, dietary changes away from fatty fish consumption, and the use of sunscreen, covering clothes and host factors (age, skin color, and body weight) have made vitamin D deficiency a ubiquitous problem [7-9]. In Denmark vitamin D deficiency (<20 nmol/L) was observed in 9% of ethnic Danish non-pregnant women [10]; 10% of women in a random sample from the cohort for the present study had 25(OH)D levels < 25 nmol/L [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Past studies suggest that maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may protect against child wheeze but studies on asthma are limited. Our objective was to examine the relation between intake of vitamin D in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years. We examined data from 44,825 women enrolled during pregnancy in the longitudinal Danish National Birth Cohort (1996--2002). We estimated vitamin D intake from diet and supplements based on information from a validated food frequency questionnaire completed in gestational week 25. At 18 months, we evaluated child asthma using data from phone interviews. We assessed asthma and allergic rhinitis by self-report at age 7 and asthma by using records from national registries. Current asthma at age 7 was defined as lifetime asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months. We calculated multivariable risk ratios with 95% CIs comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of vitamin D intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. The median (5%-95%ile) intake of total vitamin D was 11.7(3.0-19.4) mug/day (68% from supplements). In multivariable analysis, mothers in the highest (vs. lowest) quintile of total vitamin D intake were less likely to have children classified with current asthma at 7 years (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.96, P = 0.02) and they were less likely to have children admitted to the hospital due to asthma (Q5 vs. Q1: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 1.00, P = 0.05). We found no associations with child asthma at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis at 7 years. Our findings suggest a weak inverse relationship between high total vitamin D and asthma outcomes in later, but not early, childhood. The data did not suggest a clear threshold of vitamin D intake above which risk of asthma was reduced.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 10/2013; 13(1):199. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-199 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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