An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that the major source of vitamin D should come from dietary sources and not sun exposure. However, the major fortified dietary source of vitamin D is milk which often does not contain at least 80% of what is stated on the label. Fish has been touted as an excellent source of vitamin D especially oily fish including salmon and mackerel. Little is known about the effect of various cooking conditions on the vitamin D content in fish. We initiated a study and evaluated the vitamin D content in several species of fish and also evaluated the effect of baking and frying on the vitamin D content. Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Tai C Chen, Jul 28, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Manfred Eggersdorfer
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- "This wide vitamin A to vitamin D ratio range is the reason why fish liver oils often need further processing . In fresh fish products we observe a huge variation in the vitamin D 3 content per 100 g wet weight (Egaas and Lambertsen, 1979; Takeuchi et al., 1984, 1986; Kobayashi et al., 1995; Mattila et al., 1995a, 1997; Ostermeyer and Schmidt, 2006; Lu et al., 2007; Byrdwell et al., 2013) (Table 1). Large variations in vitamin D 3 content were found within the same species, but also between the different fish species. "
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g., in wintertime) is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to a multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well-known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers, and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Based on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7% of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3% are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to reach sufficient vitamin D micronutrient levels. The latter situation is known as hidden hunger. The inadequate vitamin D status impacts on health care costs, which in turn could result in significant savings, if corrected. Since little is known about the effects on the molecular level that accompany the pandemic like epigenetic imprinting, the insufficiency-triggered gene regulations or the genetic background influence on the body to maintain metabolic resilience, future research will be needed. The nutrition community is highly interested in the molecular mechanism that underlies the vitamin D insufficiency caused effect. In recent years, novel large scale technologies have become available that allow the simultaneous acquisition of transcriptome, epigenome, proteome, or metabolome data in cells of organs. These important methods are now used for nutritional approaches summarized in emerging scientific fields of nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics, or nutriepigenetics. It is believed that with the help of these novel concepts further understanding can be generated to develop future sustainable nutrition solutions to safeguard nutrition security.Frontiers in Physiology 07/2014; 5:248. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00248 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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- "The vitamin D fraction was chromatographed on a straight phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collected fractions were chromatographed on a reverse phase HPLC to quantify the vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 content based on the UV absorption according to the study performed by Lu et al. (2007). "
ABSTRACT: In this study, the influence of four cooking methods (baking, boiling, microwaving and frying) was evaluated on the nutritional value of kutum roach. Proximate, fatty acid composition, vitamin and mineral contents and also nutritional quality indices (NQI) of kutum roach were investigated before and after cooking treatment. All treated samples showed increase in protein, ash and lipid contents and decrease in the content of total omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) in comparison to raw fish fillets (control group). Cooking methods had no significant effect on omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) except for frying that increased it. Nonetheless, all of the cooking methods reduced vitamin B1, A and D contents. Boiling significantly decreased mineral contents including Na, K, P and Zn. Considering the overall nutritional quality indices, vitamin and mineral contents, baking is the best cooking method among other applied methods.Food Chemistry 04/2014; 148C:86-91. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.012 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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- "The serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly different in the ID and AD groups, although vitamin D intake was similar in both (although below that recommended in both; Table 1). No significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of the consumption of milk products, meat, fish or eggs—the main dietary sources of vitamin D (Gannagé-Yared et al., 2005; Lamberg- Allardt, 2006; Lu et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2008b). There were not any differences observed in calcium intake (Table 1), despite the fact that a low calcium intake has been associated with inadequate vitamin D status (Heaney, 2008). "
ABSTRACT: To analyze the association between different anthropometric variables and vitamin D status in a group of Spanish schoolchildren. Study subjects were 102 children aged 9-13 years. Records were made of their height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip measurements (to determine the quantity of visceral or abdominal fat), and the thickness of the tricipital and bicipital skinfold (to determine the quantity of subcutaneous fat). Diets were analyzed using a 3-day weighed food record and vitamin D intakes compared with those recommended. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent assay. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.6+/-15.9 nmol/l. The mean serum 25(OH)D in the ID subjects (that is, those with insufficient vitamin D levels, 25(OH)D of <70 nmol/l) was 46.6+/-13.4 nmol/l and in the AD subjects (that is, those with adequate vitamin D levels, 25(OH)D of > or =70 nmol/l) was 77.5+/-8.4 nmol/l (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed between both groups in vitamin D intake. However, the ID subjects had higher body weight, BMI, waist measurement and waist/height ratio than the AD subjects. Using a multiple linear regression analysis, only weight and BMI were found to independently influence 25(OH)D values. Children with a body weight, BMI, bicipital skinfold thickness, waist measurement and waist/height ratio above the 50th percentile for each variable were at a greater risk of having a low serum 25(OH)D concentration (<70 nmol/l). BMI and abdominal obesity influence the appearance of vitamin D insufficiency in children.European journal of clinical nutrition 03/2010; 64(5):461-7. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2010.26 · 2.95 Impact Factor