Article

An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: Is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D?

Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Departments of Medicine and Physiology and Biophysics, 715 Albany Street, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.05). 04/2007; 103(3-5):642-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.12.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that the major source of vitamin D should come from dietary sources and not sun exposure. However, the major fortified dietary source of vitamin D is milk which often does not contain at least 80% of what is stated on the label. Fish has been touted as an excellent source of vitamin D especially oily fish including salmon and mackerel. Little is known about the effect of various cooking conditions on the vitamin D content in fish. We initiated a study and evaluated the vitamin D content in several species of fish and also evaluated the effect of baking and frying on the vitamin D content. Surprisingly, farmed salmon had approximately 25% of the vitamin D content as wild salmon had. The vitamin D content in fish varied widely even within species. These data suggest that the tables that list the vitamin D content are out-of-date and need to be re-evaluated.

0 Followers
 · 
114 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Considerable evidence indicates that diet is an important risk-modifying factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence is also mounting that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important risk factors for AD. Objective: This study strives to determine whether estimated dietary AGEs estimated from national diets and epidemiological studies are associated with increased AD incidence. Methods: We estimated values of dietary AGEs using values in a published paper. We estimated intake of dietary AGEs from the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, which investigated how the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) affected AD incidence. Further, AD prevalence data came from three ecological studies and included data from 11 countries for 1977-1993, seven developing countries for 1995-2005, and Japan for 1985-2008. The analysis used dietary AGE values from 20 years before the AD prevalence data. Results: Meat was always the food with the largest amount of AGEs. Other foods with significant AGEs included fish, cheese, vegetables, and vegetable oil. High MeDi adherence results in lower meat and dairy intake, which possess high AGE content. By using two different models to extrapolate dietary AGE intake in the WHICAP 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, we showed that reduced dietary AGE significantly correlates with reduced AD incidence. For the ecological studies, estimates of dietary AGEs in the national diets corresponded well with AD prevalence data even though the cooking methods were not well known. Conclusion: Dietary AGEs appear to be important risk factors for AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2015; · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Considerable evidence indicates that diet is an important risk-modifying factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence is also mounting that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important risk factors for AD. Objective: This study strives to determine whether estimated dietary AGEs estimated from national diets and epidemiological studies are associated with increased AD incidence. Methods: We estimated values of dietary AGEs using values in a published paper. We estimated intake of dietary AGEs from the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, which investigated how the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) affected AD incidence. Further, AD prevalence data came from three ecological studies and included data from 11 countries for 1977-1993, seven developing countries for 1995-2005, and Japan for 1985-2008. The analysis used dietary AGE values from 20 years before the AD prevalence data. Results: Meat was always the food with the largest amount of AGEs. Other foods with significant AGEs included fish, cheese, vegetables, and vegetable oil. High MeDi adherence results in lower meat and dairy intake, which possess high AGE content. By using two different models to extrapolate dietary AGE intake in the WHICAP 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, we showed that reduced dietary AGE significantly correlates with reduced AD incidence. For the ecological studies, estimates of dietary AGEs in the national diets corresponded well with AD prevalence data even though the cooking methods were not well known. Conclusion: Dietary AGEs appear to be important risk factors for AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2015; DOI:10.3233/JAD-140720 · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition Research 12/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.11.007 · 2.59 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
39 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014