Prepubertal Gynecomastia Linked to Lavender and Tea Tree Oils
Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States New England Journal of Medicine
(Impact Factor: 55.87).
03/2007; 356(5):479-85. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa064725
Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.
Available from: James Mcintyre
- "Isolated breast enlargement is usually referred to as prepubertal gynecomastia or premature thelarche [2,3,9]. Prepubertal gynecomastia should always be considered a pathological sign [2,3,10,11]. Although the majority of cases are idiopathic, there are various recognised causes of prepubertal gynecomastia including conditions of the liver, kidney, thyroid, adrenal glands and testicles (Table 1) [2,3,10,11]. "
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ABSTRACT: Prepubertal gynecomastia is a rare condition and most frequently classified as idiopathic. In HIV-infected adults gynecomastia is a recognised but infrequent side-effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and mostly attributed to efavirenz use. Gynecomastia should be distinguished from pseudogynecomastia as part of the lipodystrophy syndrome caused by Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) to avoid incorrect substitution of drugs. In the medical literature only five cases of prepubertal gynecomastia in children taking ART are described and underlying pathogenesis was unknown. The occurrence of adverse effects of ART may interfere with therapy adherence and long-term prognosis and for that reason requires attention. We report the first case of prepubertal gynecomastia in a young girl attributed to efavirenz use.
A seven-year-old African girl presented with true gynecomastia four months after initiation on ART (abacavir, lamivudine, efavirenz). History, physical examination and laboratory tests excluded known causes of gynecomastia and efavirenz was considered as the most likely cause. Six weeks after withdrawal of efavirenz the breast enlargement had completely resolved.
Efavirenz-induced gynecomastia may occur in children as well as in adults. With the increasing access to ART, the possibility of efavirenz-exposure and the potential occurrence of its associated side-effects may be high. In resource-poor settings, empirical change from efavirenz to nevirapine may be considered, providing no other known or alarming cause is identified, as efavirenz-induced gynecomastia can resolve quickly after withdrawal of the drug. Timely recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important in order to intervene while the condition may still be reversible, to sustain adherence to ART and to maintain the sociopsychological health of the child.
BMC Pediatrics 08/2013; 13(1):120. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-120 · 1.93 Impact Factor
Available from: Ali Gorji
- "Gynecomastia resolved in all patients shortly after discontinuation of products containing these oils. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the lavender oil had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities . Lavender should be also used cautiously or avoided in patients with known allergy to lavender [105, 106]. "
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ABSTRACT: Lavender is traditionally alleged to have a variety of therapeutic and curative properties, ranging from inducing relaxation to treating parasitic infections, burns, insect bites, and spasm. There is growing evidence suggesting that lavender oil may be an effective medicament in treatment of several neurological disorders. Several animal and human investigations suggest anxiolytic, mood stabilizer, sedative, analgesic, and anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties for lavender. These studies raised the possibility of revival of lavender therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders. In this paper, a survey on current experimental and clinical state of knowledge about the effect of lavender on the nervous system is given.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2013; 2013:681304. DOI:10.1155/2013/681304 · 1.88 Impact Factor
Available from: Katja Boehm
- "Repeated exposure to lavender and tea tree oils by topical administration was shown in one study to be associated with reversible prepubertal gynecomastia (Henley et al., 2007). The respective effect appears to have been caused by the purported weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities of lavender and tea tree oils. "
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ABSTRACT: Claims of benefits of aromatherapy for cancer patients include reduced anxiety levels and relief of emotional stress, pain, muscular tension and fatigue. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated descriptive, systematic review of evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials assessing the benefits and safety of aromatherapy for cancer patients. Literature databases such as Medline (via Ovid), the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Cochrane Central were searched from their inception until October 2010. Only studies on cancer cells or cancer patients were included. There is no long lasting effect of aromatherapy massage, while short term improvements were reported for general well being, anxiety and depression up to 8 weeks after treatment. The reviewed studies indicate short-term effects of aromatherapy on depression, anxiety and overall wellbeing. Specifically, some clinical trials found an increase in patient-identified symptom relief, psychological wellbeing and improved sleep. Furthermore, some found a short-term improvement (up to 2 weeks after treatment) in anxiety and depression scores and better pain control. Although essential oils have generally shown minimal adverse effects, potential risks include ingesting large amounts (intentional misuse); local skin irritation, especially with prolonged skin contact; allergic contact dermatitis; and phototoxicity from reaction to sunlight (some oils). Repeated topical administration of lavender and tea tree oil was associated with reversible prepubertal gynecomastia.
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 09/2012; 9(4):503-18. DOI:10.1016/j.eujim.2012.07.773 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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