The role of muscle activation pattern and calcineurin in acetylcholinesterase regulation in rat skeletal muscles.
ABSTRACT Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in fast rat muscles is approximately fourfold higher than in slow muscles. We examined whether different muscle activation patterns are responsible for this difference and whether the calcineurin signaling pathway is involved in AChE regulation. The slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were directly or indirectly stimulated by a tonic low-frequency or a phasic high-frequency pattern of electric impulses. The phasic, but not tonic, stimulation increased the AChE mRNA levels in denervated soleus muscles to those in the normal EDL and maintained high levels of AChE mRNA in denervated EDL muscles. Therefore, muscle activation pattern is the predominant regulator of extrajunctional AChE expression in rat muscles. Indirect phasic stimulation of innervated muscles, imposed on their natural pattern of neural activation, did not increase the AChE transcript levels in the soleus, whereas a 30% reduction was observed in the EDL muscles. A low number of impulses per day is therefore prerequisite for high AChE expression. Treatment by tacrolimus and cyclosporin A, two inhibitors of calcineurin (but not by a related substance rapamycin, which does not inhibit calcineurin), increased the levels of AChE transcripts in the control soleus muscles and in tonically electrically stimulated soleus and EDL muscles, even to reach those in the control EDL muscles. Therefore, tonic muscle activation reduces the extrajunctional levels of AChE transcripts by activating the calcineurin signaling pathway. In denervated soleus and EDL muscles, tacrolimus did not prevent the reduction of AChE mRNA levels, indicating that a calcineurin-independent suppressive mechanism was involved.
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ABSTRACT: In rat fast muscles, collagen Q (ColQ) expression is restricted to the neuromuscular junctions. In contrast, it is high also extrajunctionally in the slow soleus muscles. Fast muscles activated by chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation, similar to neural activation of the soleus muscles, did not increase their extrajunctional expression of ColQ. We assumed that the myogenic stem cells (satellite cells) in fast and slow muscles were intrinsically different in regard to the capacity that they convey to their respective muscle fibers to increase the extrajunctional ColQ expression upon innervation. ColQ mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Extensive neural suppression of the extrajunctional ColQ expression in regenerating fast muscles during maturation is a very slow process requiring 30-60days. If the immature regenerating fast EDL muscles were indirectly or directly electrically stimulated immediately after innervation by chronic low-frequency impulse pattern for 8days, no significant increase of the extrajunctional ColQ mRNA levels was observed in stimulated regenerates in comparison to non-stimulated ones. In contrast, the extrajunctional ColQ mRNA levels in the regenerates of the soleus muscles, trans-innervated by the EDL nerve at the time of muscle injury, increased 4- to 5-fold after 8days of the same chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation in comparison to those in the stimulated EDL regenerates. Since both fast and slow muscles completely regenerated only from their own myogenic stem cells and were innervated by the same nerve and later activated by the same tonic pattern of impulses, these results demonstrated that the mechanism causing incapacity of regenerating fast muscles to increase their extrajunctional ColQ expression upon tonic activation is encoded in their satellite cells, which in this respect differ from those in the slow muscles.Chemico-biological interactions 08/2012; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, thereby limiting spillover and duration of action. This study demonstrates the existence of an endogenous mechanism for the regulation of synaptic AChE activity. At the rat extensor digitorum longus neuromuscular junction, activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by combined application of glutamate and glycine led to enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) production, resulting in partial AChE inhibition. Partial AChE inhibition was measured using increases in miniature endplate current amplitude. AChE inhibition by paraoxon, inactivation of NO synthase by N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and NMDA receptor blockade by dl-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid prevented the increase in miniature endplate current amplitude caused by amino acids. High-frequency (10 Hz) motor nerve stimulation in a glycine-containing bathing solution also resulted in an increase in the amplitude of miniature endplate currents recorded during the interstimulus intervals. Pretreatment with an NO synthase inhibitor and NMDA receptor blockade fully eliminated this effect. This suggests that endogenous glutamate, released into the synaptic cleft as a co-mediator of acetylcholine, is capable of triggering the NMDA receptor/NO synthase-mediated pathway that modulates synaptic AChE activity. Therefore, in addition to well-established modes of synaptic plasticity (e.g. changes in the effectiveness of neurotransmitter release and/or the sensitivity of the postsynaptic membrane), another mechanism exists based on the prompt regulation of AChE activity.European Journal of Neuroscience 11/2012; · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anatoxin-a is a neurotoxin produced by various bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Although it shows widespread occurrence and is highly toxic to rodents, its mechanisms of action and biotransformation, and effects in fish species are still poorly understood. The main aim of this study was, thus, to investigate sub-lethal effects of anatoxin-a on selected biochemical markers in rainbow trout fry in order to get information about the mechanisms of toxicity and biotransformation of this toxin in fish. Trout fry were administered sub-lethal doses of anatoxin-a (0.08-0.31 μg.g(-1)) intraperitoneally. Livers and muscle tissue were collected 72 h later for quantification of key enzyme activities as biochemical markers. Enzymes assessed in muscle tissues were related to cholinergic transmission (acetylcholinesterase [AChE]), energy metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH]). Enzymes assessed in the liver were involved in biotransformation (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase [EROD] and glutathione S-transferases [GST]). The results indicated a significant increasing trend for AChE activity with the dose of anatoxin-a, possibly representing an attempt to cope with overstimulation of muscle activity by the toxin, which competes with acetylcholine for nicotinic receptors binding. Anatoxin-a was also found to significantly induce the activities of liver EROD and GST, indicating the involvement of phase I and II biotransformation in its detoxification. Likewise, lactate dehydrogenase activity recorded in fry muscle increased significantly with the dose of anatoxin-a, suggesting an induction of the anaerobic pathway of energy production to deal with toxic stress induced by the exposure. Altogether, the results suggest that under continued exposure in the wild fish may experience motor difficulties, possibly becoming vulnerable to predators, and be at increased metabolic demand to cope with energetic requirements imposed by anatoxin-a biotransformation mechanisms.Toxicon 05/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor