Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression in fast rat muscles is approximately fourfold higher than in slow muscles. We examined whether different muscle activation patterns are responsible for this difference and whether the calcineurin signaling pathway is involved in AChE regulation. The slow soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were directly or indirectly stimulated by a tonic low-frequency or a phasic high-frequency pattern of electric impulses. The phasic, but not tonic, stimulation increased the AChE mRNA levels in denervated soleus muscles to those in the normal EDL and maintained high levels of AChE mRNA in denervated EDL muscles. Therefore, muscle activation pattern is the predominant regulator of extrajunctional AChE expression in rat muscles. Indirect phasic stimulation of innervated muscles, imposed on their natural pattern of neural activation, did not increase the AChE transcript levels in the soleus, whereas a 30% reduction was observed in the EDL muscles. A low number of impulses per day is therefore prerequisite for high AChE expression. Treatment by tacrolimus and cyclosporin A, two inhibitors of calcineurin (but not by a related substance rapamycin, which does not inhibit calcineurin), increased the levels of AChE transcripts in the control soleus muscles and in tonically electrically stimulated soleus and EDL muscles, even to reach those in the control EDL muscles. Therefore, tonic muscle activation reduces the extrajunctional levels of AChE transcripts by activating the calcineurin signaling pathway. In denervated soleus and EDL muscles, tacrolimus did not prevent the reduction of AChE mRNA levels, indicating that a calcineurin-independent suppressive mechanism was involved.
"Again and regardless of the way of stimulation, no significant increase of ColQ mRNA levels could be observed in stimulated regenerates in comparison to non-stimulated EDL regenerates of the same age. Relatively low levels of AChE mRNA in stimulated innervated muscle regenerates (used as a positive control, see ), and of AChR mRNA in stimulated denervated regenerates (see ), in comparison to non-stimulated regenerates, demonstrated that both ways of electrical stimulation of the EDL muscle regenerates were efficient in a large majority of muscle fibers. In contrast, the extrajunctional ColQ mRNA in the regenerates of the soleus muscles , trans-innervated by the EDL nerve at the time of muscle injury to prevent their natural nerve-triggered activation, increased to 4- to 5-fold higher levels than those in the EDL regenerates after 8 days of identical chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation, and reached about 70% of the levels in the normal soleus muscles. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rat fast muscles, collagen Q (ColQ) expression is restricted to the neuromuscular junctions. In contrast, it is high also extrajunctionally in the slow soleus muscles. Fast muscles activated by chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation, similar to neural activation of the soleus muscles, did not increase their extrajunctional expression of ColQ. We assumed that the myogenic stem cells (satellite cells) in fast and slow muscles were intrinsically different in regard to the capacity that they convey to their respective muscle fibers to increase the extrajunctional ColQ expression upon innervation. ColQ mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Extensive neural suppression of the extrajunctional ColQ expression in regenerating fast muscles during maturation is a very slow process requiring 30-60days. If the immature regenerating fast EDL muscles were indirectly or directly electrically stimulated immediately after innervation by chronic low-frequency impulse pattern for 8days, no significant increase of the extrajunctional ColQ mRNA levels was observed in stimulated regenerates in comparison to non-stimulated ones. In contrast, the extrajunctional ColQ mRNA levels in the regenerates of the soleus muscles, trans-innervated by the EDL nerve at the time of muscle injury, increased 4- to 5-fold after 8days of the same chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation in comparison to those in the stimulated EDL regenerates. Since both fast and slow muscles completely regenerated only from their own myogenic stem cells and were innervated by the same nerve and later activated by the same tonic pattern of impulses, these results demonstrated that the mechanism causing incapacity of regenerating fast muscles to increase their extrajunctional ColQ expression upon tonic activation is encoded in their satellite cells, which in this respect differ from those in the slow muscles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen Q is expressed also outside of neuromuscular junctions in the slow soleus muscle, but not in fast muscles. We examined the nerve dependence of muscle collagen Q expression and mechanisms responsible for these differences. Denervation decreased extrajunctional collagen Q mRNA levels in the soleus muscles and junctional levels in fast sternomastoid muscles to about one third. Cross-innervation of denervated soleus muscles by a fast muscle nerve, or electrical stimulation by 'fast' impulse pattern, reduced their extrajunctional collagen Q mRNA levels by 70-80%. In contrast, stimulation of fast muscles by 'slow' impulse pattern had no effect on collagen Q expression. Calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and cyclosporin A decreased collagen Q mRNA levels in the soleus muscles to about 35%, but did not affect collagen Q expression in denervated soleus muscles or the junctional expression in fast muscles. Therefore, high extrajunctional expression of collagen Q in the soleus muscle is maintained by its tonic nerve-induced activation pattern via the activated Ca(2+)-calcineurin signaling pathway. The extrajunctional collagen Q expression in fast muscles is independent of muscle activation pattern and seems irreversibly suppressed. The junctional expression of collagen Q in fast muscles is partly nerve-dependent, but does not encompass the Ca(2+)-calcineurin signaling pathway.
Journal of Neurochemistry 04/2008; 105(6):2535-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05328.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article presents a simple method for evaluating process control performance improvements by applying fuzzy conditional probability. The fuzzy conditional probability of an unwanted fuzzy event, while a known disturbance fuzzy event is active, is calculated before and after the control improvement. The probability is used as a measurement of the control error. A case study for a boiler control improvement is presented.
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