P2Y(1) receptor modulation of the pre-Botzinger complex inspiratory rhythm generating network in vitro
ABSTRACT ATP is released during hypoxia from the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and activates purinergic P2 receptors (P2Rs) at unknown loci to offset the secondary hypoxic depression of breathing. In this study, we used rhythmically active medullary slices from neonatal rat to map, in relation to anatomical and molecular markers of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) (a proposed site of rhythm generation), the effects of ATP on respiratory rhythm and identify the P2R subtypes responsible for these actions. Unilateral microinjections of ATP in a three-dimensional grid within the VLM revealed a "hotspot" where ATP (0.1 mM) evoked a rapid 2.2 +/- 0.1-fold increase in inspiratory frequency followed by a brief reduction to 0.83 +/- 0.02 of baseline. The hotspot was identified as the preBötC based on histology, overlap of injection sites with NK1R immunolabeling, and potentiation or inhibition of respiratory frequency by SP ([Sar9-Met(O2)11]-substance P) or DAMGO ([D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin), respectively. The relative potency of P2R agonists [2MeSADP (2-methylthioadenosine 5'-diphosphate) approximately = 2MeSATP (2-methylthioadenosine 5'-triphosphate) approximately = ATPgammas (adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate tetralithium salt) approximately = ATP > UTP approximately = alphabeta meATP (alpha,beta-methylene-adenosine 5'-triphosphate)] and attenuation of the ATP response by MRS2179 (2'-deoxy-N6-methyladenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate) (P2Y1 antagonist) indicate that the excitation is mediated by P2Y1Rs. The post-ATP inhibition, which was never observed in response to ATPgammas, is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. These data establish in neonatal rats that respiratory rhythm generating networks in the preBötC are exquisitely sensitive to P2Y1R activation, and suggest a role for P2Y1Rs in respiratory motor control, particularly in the P2R excitation of rhythm that occurs during hypoxia.
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ABSTRACT: The field of CO(2) chemosensitivity has developed considerably in recent years. There has been a mounting number of competing nuclei proposed as chemosensitive along with an ever increasing list of potential chemosensory transducing molecules. Is it really possible that all of these areas and candidate molecules are involved in the detection of chemosensory stimuli? How do we discriminate rigorously between molecules that are chemosensory transducers at the head of a physiological reflex versus those that just happen to display sensitivity to a chemosensory stimulus? Equally, how do we differentiate between nuclei that have a primary chemosensory function, versus those that are relays in the pathway? We have approached these questions by proposing rigorous definitions for the different components of the chemosensory reflex, going from the salient molecules and ions, through the components of transduction to the identity of chemosensitive cells and chemosensitive nuclei. Our definitions include practical and rigorous experimental tests that can be used to establish the identity of these components. We begin by describing the need for central CO(2) chemosensitivity and the problems that the field has faced. By comparing chemosensory mechanisms to those in the visual system we suggest stricter definitions for the components of the chemosensory pathway. We then, considering these definitions, re-evaluate current knowledge of chemosensory transduction, and propose the 'multiple salient signal hypothesis' as a framework for understanding the multiplicity of transduction mechanisms and brain areas seemingly involved in chemosensitivity.The Journal of Physiology 12/2011; 589(Pt 23):5561-79. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.214759 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ATP signalling in the CNS is mediated by a three-part system comprising the actions of ATP (and ADP) at P2 receptors (P2Rs), adenosine (ADO) at P1 receptors (P1Rs), and ectonucleotidases that degrade ATP into ADO. ATP excites preBötzinger complex (preBötC) inspiratory rhythm-generating networks where its release attenuates the hypoxic depression of breathing. Its metabolite, ADO, inhibits breathing through unknown mechanisms that may involve the preBötC. Our objective is to understand the dynamics of this signalling system and its influence on preBötC networks. We show that the preBötC of mouse and rat is sensitive to P2Y(1) purinoceptor (P2Y(1)R) activation, responding with a >2-fold increase in frequency. Remarkably, the mouse preBötC is insensitive to ATP. Only after block of A(1) ADORs is the ATP-evoked, P2Y(1)R-mediated frequency increase observed. This demonstrates that ATP is rapidly degraded to ADO, which activates inhibitory A(1)Rs, counteracting the P2Y(1)R-mediated excitation. ADO sensitivity of mouse preBötC was confirmed by a frequency decrease that was absent in rat. Differential ectonucleotidase activities are likely to contribute to the negligible ATP sensitivity of mouse preBötC. Real-time PCR analysis of ectonucleotidase isoforms in preBötC punches revealed TNAP (degrades ATP to ADO) or ENTPDase2 (favours production of excitatory ADP) as the primary constituent in mouse and rat, respectively. These data further establish the sensitivity of this vital network to P2Y(1)R-mediated excitation, emphasizing that individual components of the three-part signalling system dramatically alter network responses to ATP. Data also suggest therapeutic potential may derive from methods that alter the ATP-ADO balance to favour the excitatory actions of ATP.The Journal of Physiology 07/2011; 589(Pt 18):4583-600. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.210930 · 4.54 Impact Factor
Article: Astrocytes as brain interoceptors[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Astrocytes form a vascular-neuronal interface and provide CNS neural networks with essential structural and metabolic support. They embrace all penetrating arterioles and capillaries, enwrap multiple neuronal somata, thousands of individual synapses, and upon activation release gliotransmitters (ATP, glutamate and D-serine) capable of modulating neuronal activity. The aim of this brief report is to review recent data implicating astrocytes in the brain mechanisms responsible for the detection of different sensory modalities and transmitting sensory information to the relevant neural networks controlling vital behaviours. The concept of astrocytes as brain interoceptors is strongly supported by our recent data obtained from studies of the central nervous mechanisms underlying the chemosensory control of breathing. At the level of the medulla oblongata, astrocytes indeed act as functional central respiratory chemoreceptors, sensing changes in the arterial blood and brain levels of /pH and then imparting these changes on the activity of the respiratory network to induce adaptive changes in lung ventilation.Experimental physiology 02/2011; 96(4):411-6. DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2010.053165 · 2.87 Impact Factor