Crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase domain of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na+ pump from Vibrio cholerae.
ABSTRACT Oxaloacetate decarboxylase is a membrane-bound multiprotein complex that couples oxaloacetate decarboxylation to sodium ion transport across the membrane. The initial reaction catalyzed by this enzyme machinery is the carboxyl transfer from oxaloacetate to the prosthetic biotin group. The crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase at 1.7 A resolution shows a dimer of alpha(8)beta(8) barrels with an active site metal ion, identified spectroscopically as Zn(2+), at the bottom of a deep cleft. The enzyme is completely inactivated by specific mutagenesis of Asp17, His207 and His209, which serve as ligands for the Zn(2+) metal ion, or by Lys178 near the active site, suggesting that Zn(2+) as well as Lys178 are essential for the catalysis. In the present structure this lysine residue is hydrogen-bonded to Cys148. A potential role of Lys178 as initial acceptor of the carboxyl group from oxaloacetate is discussed.
Article: Structure-function relations in oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex. Fluorescence and infrared approaches to monitor oxomalonate and Na(+) binding effect.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxaloacetate decarboxylase (OAD) is a member of the Na(+) transport decarboxylase enzyme family found exclusively in anaerobic bacteria. OAD of Vibrio cholerae catalyses a key step in citrate fermentation, converting the chemical energy of the decarboxylation reaction into an electrochemical gradient of Na(+) ions across the membrane, which drives endergonic membrane reactions such as ATP synthesis, transport and motility. OAD is a membrane-bound enzyme composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit contains the carboxyltransferase catalytic site. In this report, spectroscopic techniques were used to probe oxomalonate (a competitive inhibitor of OAD with respect to oxaloacetate) and Na(+) effects on the enzyme tryptophan environment and on the secondary structure of the OAD complex, as well as the importance of each subunit in the catalytic mechanism. An intrinsic fluorescence approach, Red Edge Excitation Shift (REES), indicated that solvent molecule mobility in the vicinity of OAD tryptophans was more restricted in the presence of oxomalonate. It also demonstrated that, although the structure of OAD is sensitive to the presence of NaCl, oxomalonate was able to bind to the enzyme even in the absence of Na(+). REES changes due to oxomalonate binding were also observed with the alphagamma and alpha subunits. Infrared spectra showed that OAD, alphagamma and alpha subunits have a main component band centered between 1655 and 1650 cm(-1) characteristic of a high content of alpha helix structures. Addition of oxomalonate induced a shift of the amide-I band of OAD toward higher wavenumbers, interpreted as a slight decrease of beta sheet structures and a concomitant increase of alpha helix structures. Oxomalonate binding to alphagamma and alpha subunits also provoked secondary structure variations, but these effects were negligible compared to OAD complex. Oxomalonate binding affects the tryptophan environment of the carboxyltransferase subunit, whereas Na(+) alters the tryptophan environment of the beta subunit, consistent with the function of these subunits within the enzyme complex. Formation of a complex between OAD and its substrates elicits structural changes in the alpha-helical as well as beta-strand secondary structure elements.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e10935. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biotin-dependent carboxylases are a diverse family of carboxylating enzymes widespread in the three domains of life, and thus thought to be very ancient. This family includes enzymes that carboxylate acetyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA, methylcrotonyl-CoA, geranyl-CoA, acyl-CoA, pyruvate and urea. They share a common catalytic mechanism involving a biotin carboxylase domain, which fixes a CO₂ molecule on a biotin carboxyl carrier peptide, and a carboxyl transferase domain, which transfers the CO₂ moiety to the specific substrate of each enzyme. Despite this overall similarity, biotin-dependent carboxylases from the three domains of life carrying their reaction on different substrates adopt very diverse protein domain arrangements. This has made difficult the resolution of their evolutionary history up to now. Taking advantage of the availability of a large amount of genomic data, we have carried out phylogenomic analyses to get new insights on the ancient evolution of the biotin-dependent carboxylases. This allowed us to infer the set of enzymes present in the last common ancestor of each domain of life and in the last common ancestor of all living organisms (the cenancestor). Our results suggest that the last common archaeal ancestor had two biotin-dependent carboxylases, whereas the last common bacterial ancestor had three. One of these biotin-dependent carboxylases ancestral to Bacteria most likely belonged to a large family, the CoA-bearing-substrate carboxylases, that we define here according to protein domain composition and phylogenetic analysis. Eukaryotes most likely acquired their biotin-dependent carboxylases through the mitochondrial and plastid endosymbioses as well as from other unknown bacterial donors. Finally, phylogenetic analyses support previous suggestions about the existence of an ancient bifunctional biotin-protein ligase bound to a regulatory transcription factor. The most parsimonious scenario for the early evolution of the biotin-dependent carboxylases, supported by the study of protein domain composition and phylogenomic analyses, entails that the cenancestor possessed two different carboxylases able to carry out the specific carboxylation of pyruvate and the non-specific carboxylation of several CoA-bearing substrates, respectively. These enzymes may have been able to participate in very diverse metabolic pathways in the cenancestor, such as in ancestral versions of fatty acid biosynthesis, anaplerosis, gluconeogenesis and the autotrophic fixation of CO₂.BMC Evolutionary Biology 08/2011; 11:232. · 3.52 Impact Factor