Iontophoresis - an approach for controlled drug delivery: a review.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, (Hamdard University), New Delhi-110062, India.
Current Drug Delivery 02/2007; 4(1):1-10. DOI: 10.2174/156720107779314802
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The recent approval of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine combined iontophoretic patch (Lidosite Vysteris Inc.) for localized pain treatment by FDA has invigorated the gaining interest in iontophoretic drug delivery systems for the transdermal delivery of drugs. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference, is one of the most promising physical skin penetration enhancing method. The rationale behind using this technique is the capability of this method to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability, which is otherwise achieved only when parentral route of administration is used. Recently, good permeation of larger peptides like insulin has been achieved through this technique in combination with chemical enhancers. This review briefly describes the factors which affect iontophoretic drug delivery and summarizes the studies conducted recently using this technique in order to achieve higher systemic absorption of the drugs having low passive diffusion otherwise. The effect of permeation enhancers (chemical enhancers) on iontophoretic flux of drugs has also been described. Present review also provides an insight into reverse iontophoresis. Various parameters which affect the transdermal absorption of drugs through iontophoresis like drug concentration, polarity of drugs, pH of donor solution, presence of co-ions, ionic strength, electrode polarity etc. have also been reviewed in detail.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transdermal route has been recognized as a promising drug delivery system for systemic delivery of drugs and provides the advantage of avoidance of first-pass effect, ease of use, better patient compliance, maintaining constant blood level for longer period of time and decrease side effects. The major pitfalls of this route lie with difficulty in permeation of drugs through the skin. Several literatures have been published for enhancing the permeation of drugs by chemical approaches. However the present review highlighted about the advanced physical techniques used for enhancing delivery of drugs such as structure-based, electrically based, velocity based and several other miscellaneous physical techniques for enhancing the permeation of drugs. In addition to these, the present review also gives an exhaustive account on clinical data about these techniques and regulatory considerations for new drugs as well as generic product approval in transdermal drug delivery.
    Current Drug Delivery 04/2011; 8(4):456-73.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of zinc sulphate administered by transdermal iontophoresis (TDI) on mechanical resistance of surgical wounds performed in the skin of diabetic rats. One hundred and sixty male Wistar rats weighing approximately 250g were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and randomly distributed into four experimental groups with 40 non-diabetic control animals (G1) and 40 untreated diabetic animals (G2), both without any treatment of incisions; 40 non-diabetic animals (G3) and 40 untreated diabetic animals (G4), both with incisions treated with zinc sulphate, administered for a period of four consecutive days after surgery, in sessions of ten minutes duration, using a continuous-current electrostimulator (Zn + TDI). Each experimental group was further divided into four subgroups with ten rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period were analyzed clinical and laboratory from the animals, and measured the breaking strength and hydroxyproline content (OH-P) of the skin scars. Breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats (G2) on the 7th, 14th, and 21st postoperative days when compared to non-diabetic control rats (G1). In contrast, BS in skin scars of non-diabetic and untreated diabetic rats (G3, G4) treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase (p<0.05) in those periods when compared with their respective controls with untreated incisions. The OH-P content of the scars did not show statistically significant variation in all studied groups at four different times evaluated after surgery. Zinc sulphate administered by transdermal iontophoresis had beneficial effect on the mechanical resistance of scars produced in the skin of diabetic rats. This therapeutic may have potential to reduce the complications observed in surgical wounds of the skin in diabetic subjects, mainly in most vulnerable stages of incisions to dehiscences, leakages and infections.
    Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 08/2013; 28(8):601-6. · 0.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Pharmacotherapy is the first line symptomatic treatment of this neurological disease. Currently Levodopa (L-DOPA) is still considered the drug of first choice, but its possible neurotoxicity and the induction of movement disability after chronic use demand for alternative therapies. An attractive alternative is the use of (semi-)synthetic dopamine agonists. It has been suggested that continuous dopamine receptor stimulation is the best symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Therefore the administration of dopamine agonists in a continuous, well-controlled manner by transdermal iontophoresis is an attractive therapeutic strategy in the symptomatic treatment of PD. This dissertation describes the administration of a series of dopamine agonists across the skin using iontophoresis. With iontophoresis a small current is applied across the skin to enhance the transdermal transport of charged molecules. With transdermal iontophoresis a continuous drug administration is achieved. And by adjusting the applied current density it is possible to titrate the dose to the requirements of the patient. In addition, continuous administration results in a continuous stimulation of the dopamine receptors in the striatum. These results demonstrate that transdermal iontophoresis of dopamine agonist is a promising method for the symptomatic treatment of PD.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014