Iontophoresis - an approach for controlled drug delivery: a review.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, (Hamdard University), New Delhi-110062, India.
Current Drug Delivery (Impact Factor: 2.25). 02/2007; 4(1):1-10. DOI: 10.2174/156720107779314802
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The recent approval of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine combined iontophoretic patch (Lidosite Vysteris Inc.) for localized pain treatment by FDA has invigorated the gaining interest in iontophoretic drug delivery systems for the transdermal delivery of drugs. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference, is one of the most promising physical skin penetration enhancing method. The rationale behind using this technique is the capability of this method to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability, which is otherwise achieved only when parentral route of administration is used. Recently, good permeation of larger peptides like insulin has been achieved through this technique in combination with chemical enhancers. This review briefly describes the factors which affect iontophoretic drug delivery and summarizes the studies conducted recently using this technique in order to achieve higher systemic absorption of the drugs having low passive diffusion otherwise. The effect of permeation enhancers (chemical enhancers) on iontophoretic flux of drugs has also been described. Present review also provides an insight into reverse iontophoresis. Various parameters which affect the transdermal absorption of drugs through iontophoresis like drug concentration, polarity of drugs, pH of donor solution, presence of co-ions, ionic strength, electrode polarity etc. have also been reviewed in detail.

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    ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare disease affecting digital microcirculation, leading to finger ulcers and in some cases to amputation. Prostacyclin analogues can be used intravenously but their therapeutic effect is counterbalanced by potentially serious vasodilatation-induced side effects. Iontophoresis of treprostinil could be a promising local therapeutic alternative for SSc-related digital ulcers. Iontophoretic drug delivery is complex, and whether continuous or periodic current should be used remains debated. The objective of the present work is to compare the effect of continuous vs pulsed iontophoresis of treprostinil in rats.
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