Iontophoresis - an approach for controlled drug delivery: a review.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Jamia Hamdard, (Hamdard University), New Delhi-110062, India.
Current Drug Delivery (Impact Factor: 2.25). 02/2007; 4(1):1-10. DOI: 10.2174/156720107779314802
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The recent approval of lidocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine combined iontophoretic patch (Lidosite Vysteris Inc.) for localized pain treatment by FDA has invigorated the gaining interest in iontophoretic drug delivery systems for the transdermal delivery of drugs. This technique of facilitated movement of ions across a membrane under the influence of an externally applied electric potential difference, is one of the most promising physical skin penetration enhancing method. The rationale behind using this technique is the capability of this method to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability, which is otherwise achieved only when parentral route of administration is used. Recently, good permeation of larger peptides like insulin has been achieved through this technique in combination with chemical enhancers. This review briefly describes the factors which affect iontophoretic drug delivery and summarizes the studies conducted recently using this technique in order to achieve higher systemic absorption of the drugs having low passive diffusion otherwise. The effect of permeation enhancers (chemical enhancers) on iontophoretic flux of drugs has also been described. Present review also provides an insight into reverse iontophoresis. Various parameters which affect the transdermal absorption of drugs through iontophoresis like drug concentration, polarity of drugs, pH of donor solution, presence of co-ions, ionic strength, electrode polarity etc. have also been reviewed in detail.

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Evaluated the effects of continuous electrical current (CEC) or zinc administrated by transdermal iontophoresis (Zn+TDI). Methods. 120 male Wistar rats were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and distributed into 6 experimental groups with 40 animals: 3 diabetic groups and 3 normal groups, untreated and treated with CEC alone or with Zn + TDI. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups with 10 rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period, clinical and laboratory parameters from the animals were analyzed. Results. The analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy showed a delay in the phases of wound healing in diabetic rats without treatment in all periods of the experiment; breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats when compared to other groups. In contrast, BS in skin scars of nondiabetic groups and diabetic rats treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase in those, besides not presenting delayed healing. Conclusion. Electrical stimulation of surgical wounds used alone or in association with zinc by TDI is able to consistently improve the morphological and ultrastructural changes observed in the healing of diabetic animals.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 08/2014; 2014:980232. DOI:10.1155/2014/980232 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With continuing advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering, there has been a dramatic increase in the availability of new biomacromolecules, such as peptides and proteins that have the potential to ameliorate the symptoms of many poorly-treated diseases. Although most of these macromolecular therapeutics exhibit high potency, their large molecular mass, susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, immunogenicity and tendency to undergo aggregation, adsorption, and denaturation have limited their ability to be administered via the traditional oral route. As a result, alternative noninvasive routes have been investigated for the systemic delivery of these macromolecules, one of which is the buccal mucosa. The buccal mucosa offers a number of advantages over the oral route, making it attractive for the delivery of peptides and proteins. However, the buccal mucosa still exhibits some permeability-limiting properties, and therefore various methods have been explored to enhance the delivery of macromolecules via this route, including the use of chemical penetration enhancers, physical methods, particulate systems and mucoadhesive formulations. The incorporation of anti-aggregating agents in buccal formulations also appears to show promise in other mucosal delivery systems, but has not yet been considered for buccal mucosal drug delivery. This review provides an update on recent approaches that have shown promise in enhancing the buccal mucosal transport of macromolecules, with a major focus on proteins and peptides.
    Pharmaceutical Research 08/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.1007/s11095-014-1485-1 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose was to investigate the early modifications induced by collagen cross-linking by iontophoresis of riboflavin (ionto-CXL) in ex vivo human corneas by evaluating different protocols of UVA irradiation. Methods In this experimental study 46 ex vivo human corneas obtained from the Eye Bank of Mestre (Italy) were divided in different groups: six were utilized as control (CTL); eight were treated with ionto-CXL at 3 mW/cm2 power for 30 min (I-3); eight were treated with ionto-CXL at 10 mW/cm2 for 9 min (I-10); eight were treated with iontophoretic delivery of riboflavin only (I-0); eight were treated with the standard CXL at 3 mW/cm2 for 30 min (S-3); and eight were treated with CXL at 10 mW/cm2 for 9 min (S-10). All samples were evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis using different markers (Connexin 43, CD34, Collagen I, TUNEL assay). Western blot analysis, utilizing Bax and Ki67 primary antibodies, for detection of keratocyte apoptosis and proliferation, respectively, was also performed. Results No endothelial damage was evidenced in the treated groups. In I-10 corneas the epithelial layers were not always well-preserved. Anterior stroma showed an uneven distribution and numerical reduction of keratocytes as well as increased apoptosis; a reduced subepithelial interweaving of collagen I fibers was observed. In S-3 and S-10 the changes induced by treatments were similar to I-10. I-3 and I-0 showed no significant changes with respect to the control group. Conclusions In the ionto-CXL at 10 mW/cm2 group occurred the main morphological and biomolecular changes. This experimental study suggests that iontophoresis can be considered a non-invasive potential delivery tool for riboflavin penetration in corneal stroma during CXL.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 11/2014; 253(2). DOI:10.1007/s00417-014-2836-7 · 2.33 Impact Factor

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