The cumulative incidence of significant gastrooesophageal reflux in patients with oesophageal atresia with a distal fistula--a systematic clinical, pH-metric, and endoscopic follow-up study.
ABSTRACT Gastrooesophageal reflux (GER) is common in patients with oesophageal atresia (OA). Complicated GER often manifests itself early after the primary repair (PR) and frequently requires antireflux surgery (ARS). How many patients will be later affected is unknown. We conducted an objective long-term follow-up for the cumulative incidence of OA-associated GER based on pH-metry and histology.
Sixty-one consecutive patients with their native oesophagus, who underwent PR for OA with a distal fistula from 1989 to 2004, were included. These children were grouped according to the Spitz classification with 77% as type I, 20% as type II, and 3% as type III. Significant heart disease, tracheomalacia, or gastric outlet obstruction occurred in 18.0 %, 9.8%, and 17.3% respectively, and a wide gap between esophageal segments occurred in 13.1%. Endoscopy and pH-metry at 1 year were followed up by endoscopy and selective pH-metry at 3, 5, and 10 years. Gastrooesophageal reflux was considered significant (sGER) when a patient underwent ARS, endoscopic biopsies disclosed at least moderate oesophagitis, or when total or preprandial reflux index were greater than 10% or 5%, respectively, with or without long (>5 minutes) reflux periods). Significant GER was considered resolved if, without need for ARS or medication, pH-metry or biopsies returned to normal and the patient was symptomless for at least 3 years.
The incidence of sGER/(number of assessed patients) at 6 months, 1 year, 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 16.3% (61), 39.3% (61), 44.2% (52), 51.2 % (43), and 44.4% (27). Overall, 28/61 (45.9%) of patients had sGER, and 18/28 (64.3%) patients underwent ARS. In one patient, sGER resolved during the follow-up.
The number of children with sGER associated with OA more than doubled from 6 months to 1 year after PR. Thereafter, there is a progressive increase in the incidence of sGER with age up to 5 years. Spontaneous resolution of sGER is rare.
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ABSTRACT: Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare congenital malformation requisite of surgical treatment. Survival rates have significantly increased in recent decades, but treated children are at risk of chronic morbidity. This study aims to review the literature on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with EA and describe the questionnaires used. A literature search was conducted in Pubmed, Cinahl and PsycINFO, from inception to January 2015. A meta-analysis of studies investigating HRQOL in patients with EA compared to healthy references was performed. The effect size was calculated as Cohen's d. Twelve articles (published 1995-2014) describing HRQOL among children, young people and adults were identified. Only European studies were found, and these had variable sample sizes (8-128). Overall HRQOL was reported to be reduced in five of the seven studies that compared overall HRQOL with a healthy reference population. Impaired physical or general health was described in eight articles. In the meta-analysis, eight eligible studies provided 16 estimates of the effect of EA, six of which reached statistical significance for worse HRQOL (p < 0.05). Using Cohen's criteria, the pooled estimate of the effect of EA was small for overall and physical HRQOL, and <0.2 for the mental and social HRQOL components. Altogether, 15 different questionnaires were used, and none were condition specific for EA. Different findings are reported; however, this study suggests that patients with EA may have a reduced HRQOL. Moreover, HRQOL is not adequately measured in this group. Additional research is required.Quality of Life Research 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11136-015-0975-x · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical experiences of adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia at birth is limited. There is some evidence that suggests considerable long-term morbidity, partly because of dysphagia, which has been reported in up to 85% of adult patients who undergo surgery for esophageal atresia. The authors hypothesized that dysphagia in this population is caused by dysmotility and⁄or anatomical anomalies. To determine the motor and anatomical causes of dysphagia. A total of 41 adults, followed at the Esophageal Atresia Clinic at Hôpital Saint-Luc (Montreal, Quebec), were approached to particpate in the present prospective study. Evaluation was completed using upper endoscopy, manometry and barium swallow for the participants who consented. The medical charts of respondents were systematically reviewed from the neonatal period to 18 years of age to assess medical and surgical history. All 41 patients followed at the clinic consented and were included in the study. Dysphagia was present in 73% of patients. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in 32 patients: hiatal hernia was present in 62% (n=20); esophageal diverticulum in 13% (n=4); macroscopic Barrett esophagus in 31% (n=10); and esophagitis in 19% (n=6). Histological esophagitis was present in 20% and intestinal metaplasia in 10%. There were no cases of dysplagia or adenocarcinoma. Esophageal manometry was performed on 56% of the patients (n=23). Manometry revealed hypomotility in 100% of patients and included an insufficient number of peristaltic waves in 96%, nonpropagating peristalsis in 78% and low-wave amplitude in 95%. Complete aperistalsis was present in 78%. The lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in 12 (52%) patients, with incomplete relaxation the most common anomaly. Of the 41 patients, 29 (71%) consented to a barium swallow, which was abnormal in 13 (45%). The anomalies found were short esophageal dilation in 28%, delay in esophageal emptying in 14%, diverticula in 14% and stenosis in 7% of patients. There was more than one anomaly in 14% of patients. Dysphagia was a highly prevalent symptom in adults who underwent surgery for esophageal atresia. The present study is the first to demonstrate that motor and anatomical abnormalities may be implicated in causes of dysphagia in this population. Furthermore, these anomalies may be demonstrated with simple investigations such as endoscopy, manometry and barium swallow.03/2015; 29(2):91-4.