The Effects of Lingual Exercise in Stroke Patients With Dysphagia

William S Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital, Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Madison, WI 53705, USA.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Impact Factor: 2.57). 02/2007; 88(2):150-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.11.002
Source: PubMed


To examine the effects of lingual exercise on swallowing recovery poststroke.
Prospective cohort intervention study, with 4- and 8-week follow-ups.
Dysphagia clinic, tertiary care center.
Ten stroke patients (n=6, acute: < or =3mo poststroke; n=4, chronic: >3mo poststroke), age 51 to 90 years (mean, 69.7y).
Subjects performed an 8-week isometric lingual exercise program by compressing an air-filled bulb between the tongue and the hard palate.
Isometric and swallowing lingual pressures, bolus flow parameters, diet, and a dysphagia-specific quality of life questionnaire were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 8. Three of the 10 subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging at each time interval to measure lingual volume.
All subjects significantly increased isometric and swallowing pressures. Airway invasion was reduced for liquids. Two subjects increased lingual volume.
The findings indicate that lingual exercise enables acute and chronic dysphagic stroke patients to increase lingual strength with associated improvements in swallowing pressures, airway protection, and lingual volume.

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    • "se in cortical excitability after 5 Hz rTMS may result in better tongue movements, but not increasing tongue strength. It may be possible that increasing tongue strength is better achieved by building up of tongue muscles through isometric exercises. It was found that increased tongue strength is associated with increased tongue volume (Robbins et al. 2007). Michou et al. (2014) proposed an alternative treatment method, paired associative stimulation (PAS), in which electrical stimulation is applied to the muscles and TMS is applied to the corresponding cortical representation. Their results showed more significant improvements in penetration-aspiration scores after PAS than after rTMS. T"
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