National Estimates and Factors Associated With Medication Treatment for Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Mailstop E-88, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 03/2007; 119 Suppl 1(Supplement):S99-106. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-2089O
Source: PubMed


In this study we identified child and family-level characteristics that were associated with medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using nationally representative survey data.
National Survey of Children's Health data from 79264 youth 4 to 17 years of age were used. Data were weighted to adjust for the complex survey design of the National Survey of Children's Health. Gender-specific logistic regression models were generated to identify child and family-level characteristics that were collectively associated with current medication status among youth with a reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Nationally, 7.8% of youth aged 4 to 17 years had a reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, and 4.3% had both a disorder diagnosis and were currently taking medication for the disorder. Current medication treatment among youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with white race, younger age, English spoken in the home, health care coverage, a health care contact within the last year, and reported psychological difficulties. Gender-specific logistic regression models revealed that, together, younger age, higher income, health care coverage, having psychological difficulties, and a health care contact in the past year were associated with medication use among boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Among girls with the disorder, younger age, psychological difficulties, fair-to-poor paternal mental health status, and a health care contact within the last year were collectively associated with current medication use. CONCLUSIONS. Regardless of gender, younger age, the presence of psychological difficulties, and a recent health care contact were significantly associated with medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, additional health care access and income variables among boys and paternal mental health status among girls represented gender-specific factors that were also associated with medication treatment for the disorder. Future studies should characterize how and when the burden associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder leads to treatment, support, or services for this prevalent and impairing neurobehavioral disorder.

4 Reads
  • Source
    • "Youth with ADHD are at an increased risk for academic failure because of learning or language problems. Other consequences associated with ADHD include dangerous driving, impaired peer relationships, delinquent behavior, and impulsive sexuality (Putukian et al. 2011; Visser et al. 2012). Moreover, when ADHD is untreated, there is increased prevalence of certain psychological disorders (e.g., major depression, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, antisocial personality , substance use, and anxiety) (Faraone et al. 1997; Rasmussen and Gillberg 2000; Kollins et al. 2005; Biederman et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use and increasing misuse of prescription stimulants among high school and college students and athletes. Given the widespread belief that stimulants enhance performance, there are in fact only a few studies reporting the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in ADHD and nonaffected individuals. Student athletes should be apprised of the very serious consequences that can emerge when stimulants are used to improve sports performance. Moreover, misuse of stimulants is associated with dangers including psychosis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and even sudden death. As ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies and education on the health risks associated with misuse is imperative.
    Brain and Behavior 09/2012; 2(5):661-77. DOI:10.1002/brb3.78 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "To the Editor: A ttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurobehavioral disorder in the world, with an estimated prevalence of 6%–8% (Visser et al. 2007). Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry recommend either a stimulant or atomoxetine as a psychopharmacological agent for its treatment. "

    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 06/2011; 21(3):295-7. DOI:10.1089/cap.2010.0101 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Despite the available evidence that many children with ADHD are not taking stimulant medication, 52% of the teachers in this study endorsed the view that methylphenidate (Ritalin) is over-prescribed to treat ADHD (Visser et al. 2007; Jensen 2000). Teachers also endorsed that anxiety causes tics and that there is a simple relationship between tic severity and impairment. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined elementary school teachers’ knowledge about Tourette syndrome and the related conditions of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) before and after a 2-h teacher training workshop. Teachers (n = 134) from five schools participated in the knowledge assessment. Fifty two (52) teachers completed a post-test 6weeks later. At Time 1, teachers’ knowledge about Tourette syndrome and related conditions was variable. Knowledge did not appear to be affected by teachers’ age, gender, years of teaching or prior experience with these disorders. Teachers who attended the workshop showed an average 5% increase in knowledge (p < .001). Teachers who scored below the median on pretest showed a 12% increase on the post-test. That the 2-h workshop showed greatest benefit for teachers who scored lower on pre-test, suggests that staff training could be guided by pre-test results. KeywordsTeacher training–Tourette syndrome–Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder–Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder–Children
    Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 02/2010; 23(1):5-14. DOI:10.1007/s10882-010-9209-x · 1.56 Impact Factor
Show more