Article

Two tandemly linked interferon-gamma-activated sequence elements in the promoter of glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 gene synergistically respond to prolactin in mouse mammary epithelial cells.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0576, USA.
Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.75). 11/2003; 17(10):1910-20. DOI: 10.1210/me.2003-0045
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previously, we reported that glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM 1) was a novel target for prolactin (PRL) in the mouse mammary gland. However, the signaling pathway by which PRL regulates GlyCAM 1 expression has not been specified. In the present study, we showed that PRL induced GlyCAM 1 expression in primary mammary epithelial cells of mice through the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) pathway. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analyses of the GlyCAM 1 promoter demonstrated that the two tandemly linked Stat5 binding sites [interferon-gamma-activated sequence 1 and -2 (GAS1 and GAS2)] in the proximal promoter region were crucial and synergistically responded to PRL. GAS2, a consensus GAS site, was essential and, by itself, weakly responded to PRL, whereas GAS1, a nonconsensus site, failed to respond to PRL but was indispensable for the maximal activity of the GlyCAM 1 promoter. Gel shift assays showed that probe containing GAS1 and GAS2 bound two Stat5 complexes, which represent Stat5 dimer and tetramer, respectively, while GAS2, by itself, bound Stat5 as a dimer only, and GAS1 showed no apparent binding activity. Interruption of tetramer formation by mutation of a tryptophan to alanine (W37A), and a leucine to serine (L83S) in the N terminus of Stat5A attenuated the synergistic effect between the two tandemly linked GAS sites. Overexpression of W37A and L83S mutants in primary mammary epithelial cells suppressed endogenous GlyCAM 1 expression.

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