Two tandemly linked interferon-gamma-activated sequence elements in the promoter of glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 gene synergistically respond to prolactin in mouse mammary epithelial cells.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0576, USA.
Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.2). 11/2003; 17(10):1910-20. DOI: 10.1210/me.2003-0045
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previously, we reported that glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM 1) was a novel target for prolactin (PRL) in the mouse mammary gland. However, the signaling pathway by which PRL regulates GlyCAM 1 expression has not been specified. In the present study, we showed that PRL induced GlyCAM 1 expression in primary mammary epithelial cells of mice through the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) pathway. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis analyses of the GlyCAM 1 promoter demonstrated that the two tandemly linked Stat5 binding sites [interferon-gamma-activated sequence 1 and -2 (GAS1 and GAS2)] in the proximal promoter region were crucial and synergistically responded to PRL. GAS2, a consensus GAS site, was essential and, by itself, weakly responded to PRL, whereas GAS1, a nonconsensus site, failed to respond to PRL but was indispensable for the maximal activity of the GlyCAM 1 promoter. Gel shift assays showed that probe containing GAS1 and GAS2 bound two Stat5 complexes, which represent Stat5 dimer and tetramer, respectively, while GAS2, by itself, bound Stat5 as a dimer only, and GAS1 showed no apparent binding activity. Interruption of tetramer formation by mutation of a tryptophan to alanine (W37A), and a leucine to serine (L83S) in the N terminus of Stat5A attenuated the synergistic effect between the two tandemly linked GAS sites. Overexpression of W37A and L83S mutants in primary mammary epithelial cells suppressed endogenous GlyCAM 1 expression.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammatory states are associated with increased bone loss. This increase is often linked to an elevation in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), a TNFalpha-like factor essential to osteoclast formation. In this study, we document the ability of IL-6 in combination with IL-6 soluble receptor (IL-6/IL-6sR) and oncostatin M to induce Rankl expression in stromal cells via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We used chromatin immunoprecipitation-tiled DNA microarray analysis to determine sites of action of STAT3 at the Rankl locus and to assess the consequences of binding on histone H4 acetylation and RNA polymerase II recruitment. Both IL-6/IL-6 soluble receptor and oncostatin M stimulated STAT3 binding upstream of the Rankl transcriptional start site. Although previously identified enhancers bound STAT3, a more distal enhancer termed mRLD6 was a particular focus of STAT3 binding. When fused to a heterologous promoter, this enhancer was highly active, containing two functionally active STAT response elements. Importantly, small interfering RNA knockdown of Stat3 mRNA and protein, but not that of Stat1 or Stat5a, was effective in limiting Rankl mRNA up-regulation. Interestingly, although RNA polymerase II and histone H4 acetylation marked many of the enhancers under basal conditions, the levels of both were strongly increased after cytokine treatment, particularly at mRLD6. Finally, mRLD6 was also a target for forskolin-induced cellular response element-binding protein (CREB) recruitment, which potentiated cytokine activity. Our studies provide new insight into mechanisms by which glycoprotein 130 activating cytokines induce RANKL expression.
    Molecular Endocrinology 10/2009; 23(12):2095-110. · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The zinc transporter ZnT2 (SLC30A2) plays an important role in zinc secretion into milk during lactation. The physiological process of mammary gland secretion is regulated through complex integration of multiple lactogenic hormones. Prolactin plays a primary role in this regulation through the activation of various signaling cascades including Jak2/STAT5, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The precise mechanisms that regulate the transfer of specific nutrients such as zinc into milk are not well understood. Herein we report that prolactin increased ZnT2 abundance transcriptionally in cultured mammary epithelial (HC11) cells. To delineate the responsible mechanisms, we first determined that prolactin-mediated ZnT2 induction was inhibited by pretreatment with the Jak2 inhibitor AG490 but not by the MAPK inhibitor PD-98059. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that ZnT2 promoter activity was increased by prolactin treatment, which was subsequently abolished by expression of a dominant-negative STAT5 construct, implicating the Jak2/STAT5 signaling pathway in the transcriptional regulation of ZnT2. Two putative consensus STAT5 binding sequences in the ZnT2 promoter were identified (GAS1:-674 to -665 and GAS2:-377 to -368). Mutagenesis of the proximal GAS2 element resulted in complete abrogation of PRL-induced ZnT2 promoter activity. The promoter incorporating the distal GAS1 mutation was only able to respond to very high PRL concentrations. Results from both the mutagenesis and gel shift assays indicated that a cooperative relationship exists between GAS1 and GAS2 for PRL-induced activation; however, the proximal GAS2 plays a more critical role in STAT5-mediated signal transduction compared with the GAS1 element. Finally, chromosome immunoprecipition assay further confirmed that prolactin activates STAT5 binding to the ZnT2 promoter in vivo. Taken together, these results illustrate that prolactin regulates the transcription of ZnT2 through activation of the Jak2/STAT5 signaling pathway to assist in providing optimal zinc for secretion into milk during lactation.
    AJP Cell Physiology 07/2009; 297(2):C369-77. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytokine-activated STAT proteins dimerize and bind to high-affinity motifs, and N-terminal domain-mediated oligomerization of dimers allows tetramer formation and binding to low-affinity tandem motifs, but the functions of dimers versus tetramers are unknown. We generated Stat5a-Stat5b double knockin (DKI) N-domain mutant mice in which STAT5 proteins form dimers but not tetramers, identified cytokine-regulated genes whose expression required STAT5 tetramers, and defined dimer versus tetramer consensus motifs. Whereas Stat5-deficient mice exhibited perinatal lethality, DKI mice were viable; thus, STAT5 dimers were sufficient for survival. Nevertheless, STAT5 DKI mice had fewer CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, NK cells, and CD8(+) T cells, with impaired cytokine-induced and homeostatic proliferation of CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, DKI CD8(+) T cell proliferation after viral infection was diminished and DKI Treg cells did not efficiently control colitis. Thus, tetramerization of STAT5 is critical for cytokine responses and normal immune function, establishing a critical role for STAT5 tetramerization in vivo.
    Immunity 04/2012; 36(4):586-99. · 19.75 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

1 Download
Available from
Jan 21, 2015