Distinctive NK-cell receptor repertoires sustain high-level constitutive NK-cell activation in HIV-exposed uninfected individuals.

Laboratoire Exploration NK, Laboratoire d'Hématologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Conception, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille, France.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 06/2007; 109(10):4296-305. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2006-08-040238
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have previously associated high natural killer (NK)-cell activity and protection against HIV-1 infection in Vietnamese exposed uninfected intravascular drug users (EUs). Considering that activating and inhibitory signals sensed by NK-cell receptors regulate NK-cell activation, we performed phenotypic and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) transcript analyses of the NK-cell receptor (NKR) repertoire in 25 EUs, 19 HIV(+) intravenous drug users, and 26 uninfected blood donors. Although NK-cell activation was not linked to a unique NKR repertoire in EUs, various patterns consistent with NK-cell activation were detected in EUs: high KIR3DS1/KIR3DL1 ratio associated with down-regulated KIR3DL1 transcript levels, KIR2DL3(+) low-affinity receptor expansion associated to group HLA-C1 ligand in 2DS2(-)/2DL2(-) EUs, enhanced NKG2C/NKG2A ratio, and increased CD69 expression. Remarkably, EUs exhibited high constitutive degranulation activity in the absence of exogenous stimulation, as shown by the CD107a assay. Furthermore, CD161 expression was increased within the CD107a(+) NK-cell compartment. Our results suggest that in response to viral exposition, particular genetic or regulated features of the NKR repertoire of EUs contribute to their high constitutive NK-cell potential. This might allow NK cells to generate a more rapid and effective immune response to HIV-1, thereby contributing to prevention toward infection.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The field of HIV prevention has indeed progressed in leaps and bounds, but with major limitations of the current prevention and treatment options, the world remains desperate for an HIV vaccine. Sadly, this continues to be elusive, because more than 30 years since its discovery there is no licensed HIV vaccine. Research aiming to define immunological biomarkers to accurately predict vaccine efficacy have focused mainly on systemic immune responses, and as such, studies defining correlates of protection in the genitorectal mucosa, the primary target site for HIV entry and seeding are sparse. Clearly, difficulties in sampling and analysis of mucosal specimens, as well as their limited size have been a major deterrent in characterizing the type (mucosal antibodies, cytokines, chemokines, or CTL), threshold (magnitude, depth, and breadth) and viral inhibitory capacity of HIV-1-specific immune responses in the genitorectal mucosa, where they are needed to immediately block HIV acquisition and arrest subsequent virus dissemination. Nevertheless, a few studies document the existence of HIV-specific immune responses in the genitorectal mucosa of HIV-infected aviremic and viremic controllers, as well as in highly exposed persistently seronegative (HEPS) individuals with natural resistance to HIV-1. Some of these responses strongly correlate with protection from HIV acquisition and/or disease progression, thus providing significant clues of the ideal components of an efficacious HIV vaccine. In this study, we provide an overview of the key features of protective immune responses found in HEPS, elite and viremic controllers, and discuss how these can be achieved through mucosal immunization. Inevitably, HIV vaccine development research will have to consider strategies that elicit potent antibody and cellular immune responses within the genitorectal mucosa or induction of systemic immune cells with an inherent potential to home and persist at mucosal sites of HIV entry.
    Frontiers in Immunology 05/2014; 5:202.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV/SIV infections break down the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa and lead to chronic immune activation and associated disease progression. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), distinguishable by high expression of NKp44 and RORγt, play key roles in mucosal defense and homeostasis, but are depleted from gastrointestinal (GI) tract large bowel during chronic SIV infection. However, less is known about the kinetics of ILC loss, or if it occurs systemically. In acute SIV infection, we found a massive, up to 8-fold, loss of NKp44+ILCs in all mucosae as early as day 6 post-infection, which was sustained through chronic disease. Interestingly, no loss of ILCs was observed in mucosa-draining lymph nodes. In contrast, classical NK cells were not depleted either from gut or draining lymph nodes. Both ILCs and NK cells exhibited significantly increased levels of apoptosis as measured by increased Annexin-V expression, but while classical NK cells also showed increased proliferation, ILCs did not. Interestingly, ILCs, which are normally noncytolytic, dramatically upregulated cytotoxic functions in acute and chronic infection and acquired a polyfunctional phenotype secreting IFN-γ, MIP1-β, and TNF-α, but decreased production of the prototypical cytokine, IL-17. Classical NK cells had less dramatic functional change, but upregulated perforin expression and increased cytotoxic potential. Finally, we show that numerical and functional loss of ILCs was due to increased apoptosis and ROR γt suppression induced by inflammatory cytokines in the gut milieu. Herein we demonstrate the first evidence for acute, systemic, and permanent loss of mucosal ILCs during SIV infection associated with reduction of IL-17. The massive reduction of ILCs involves apoptosis without compensatory de novo development/proliferation, but the full mechanism of depletion and the impact of functional change so early in infection remain unclear.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2014; 10(12):e1004551. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in the clearance of viral infections. Combinations of alleles at the polymorphic HLA-B locus and the NK cell surface killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus KIR3DL1/S1 have been shown to influence time to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and risk of seroconversion in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) subjects. Here, we assessed time to seroconversion or duration of seronegative status in a group of 168 HIV exposed individuals, including 74 seroconverters and 94 HESN based on carriage or not of KIR3DL1/S1/HLA-B genotypes previously shown to be associated with protection from infection and/or slow time to AIDS. KIR3DL1/S1 genotyping was performed by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction using two pairs of specific primers for each locus. The MHC class IB locus was typed to four-position resolution to resolve Bw4 and Bw6 alleles and the amino acid present at position 80. KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygotes became HIV infected significantly faster than KIR3DS1 homozygotes. Individuals who carried both KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I did not remain HIV seronegative longer than those from a control group who were homozygous for HLA-Bw6 and carried no HLA-A locus Bw4 alleles Subjects who were *h/*y+B*57 showed a trend towards slower time to serconversion than those with other KIR3DL1 homozygous and KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygous genotypes. Thus, KIR3DS1 homozygosity is associated with protection from HIV infection while co-carriage of KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I is not. The requirements for protection from HIV infection can differ from those that influence time to AIDS in HIV infected individuals.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110480. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014