Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), a common pathogen of poultry, has been associated with runting and neoplasia in an endangered subspecies of grouse, the Attwater's prairie chicken. The pathogenesis of REV infection was examined in experimentally infected prairie chickens. Three groups of four Attwater's/greater prairie chicken hybrids were infected intravenously with varying doses (tissue culture infective dose [TCID50], 200, 1000, and 5000) of a prairie chicken-isolated REV. A fourth group of four birds was not infected. Blood was collected prior to infection, and at various times up to 37 wk following infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined for integrated proviral DNA by a single-amplification polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR of a region within the pol gene. The nested PCR identified REV proviral DNA in all REV-inoculated birds by 2 wk postinfection and confirmed chronic infection throughout the study. With the exception of a bird that died from bacterial pneumonia 8 wk postinfection, neoplasia, resembling that seen in naturally occurring infections, was observed in all birds, even those receiving as little as 200 TCID50 of virus.
"Because of their endangered status, the APC could not be used for experimental infection. Therefore, four adult APC/GPC hybrid birds, bred and housed in a BSL2 environment, were inoculated i.v. with TCID 50 5000 as previously described (Bohls et al., 2006a) with a prairie chicken REV isolate (R92) or with PBS alone in order to evaluate changes in lymphocyte populations following experimental infection. Four uninfected APC/GPC hybrids were used as controls. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reoccurring infection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian oncogenic retrovirus, has been a major obstacle in attempts to breed and release an endangered grouse, the Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanicus cupido attwateri). REV infection of these birds in breeding facilities was found to result in significant decreases in the CD4(+) and increases in the CD8(+) lymphocyte populations, although experimental infection of birds resulted in only increases in the CD8(+) lymphocytes. Because our indirect immunofluorescent assay readily detected infection of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes, a triple labeling flow cytometric procedure was developed to quantify the individual lymphocytes infected in vivo with REV. Lymphocytes were gated with a biotinylated pan-leukocyte marker bound to streptavidin R-PE-Cy5. Chicken CD4 or CD8 specific mouse MAb directly labeled with R-PE identified the phenotype and with permeabilizing of cells, infection was indirectly labeled with rabbit IgG specific for the REV gag polypeptide and FITC conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody. More than 50% of the total lymphocytes and of the total CD4(+) or CD8(+) lymphocytes supported in vivo viral expression in all infected birds examined. Remarkably, this level of infection was detected in the absence of visible clinical signs of illness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in Greater Sage-Grouse to date. Research has demonstrated: (1) parasites and diseases can have population- level effects on grouse species, (2) new infectious diseases are emerging, and (3) habitat fragmentation is increasing the number of small, isolated populations of Greater Sage-Grouse. Natural resource management agencies need to develop additional research and systematic monitoring programs for evaluating the role of micro- and macroparasites, especially West Nile virus, infectious bronchitis and other corona viruses, avian retroviruses, Mycoplasma spp., and
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to detect reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) as a contaminant in fowl pox vaccines. A total of 30 fowl pox vaccine samples were examined for the presence of REV using both in vitro and in vivo methods. In in vitro testing, the fowl pox vaccine samples were inoculated into chicken embryo fibroblast cultures prepared from specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs, and the cultures were examined using PCR to detect REV. In in vivo testing, each fowl pox vaccine sample was inoculated into 5-d-old specific-pathogen-free chicks, which were kept under observation for up to 12 wk postinoculation; serum samples were collected at 15, 30, and 45 d postinoculation for the detection of REV-specific antibodies using ELISA. Tissue samples were collected at 8 and 12 wk postinoculation for histopathological examination. Of the tested vaccines, only one imported vaccine sample tested positive for REV using PCR. Serum samples collected from chicks infected with the PCR-positive vaccine batch also tested positive for REV-specific antibodies using ELISA. Histopathological examination of the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius demonstrated the presence of tumor cells in these organs, confirming the results obtained using PCR and ELISA, and indicating that the sample was contaminated with REV. These data clearly indicate that the screening of all commercial poultry vaccines for viruses is an important factor in assuring the biosafety of animal vaccines.
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