Anticancer effects of gallic acid isolated from Indonesian herbal medicine, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl, on human cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT The natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA) was isolated from fruits of a medicinal Indonesian plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. The structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. GA demonstrated a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in a series of cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells (TE-2) but not in non-cancerous cells (CHEK-1). Observation of the molecular mechanism of apoptosis showed that GA up-regulated the pro-apoptosis protein, Bax, and induced caspase-cascade activity in cancer cells. On the other hand, GA down-regulated anti-apoptosis proteins such as Bcl-2 and Xiap. In addition, GA also induced down-regulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. In non-cancerous cells, we observed delayed expression of pro-apoptosis related proteins. Our results suggest that GA might be a potential anticancer compound. However, in depth in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Gallic acid (GA), a polyhydroxylphenolic compound abundantly distributed in plants, fruits, and foods, has been reported to have various biological activities including an anticancer effect. In this study, we extensively investigated the anticancer effect of GA in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Our study indicated that treatment with GA resulted in inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Then, the molecular mechanism of GA's apoptotic action in MCF-7 cells was further investigated. The results revealed that GA induced apoptosis by triggering the extrinsic or Fas/FasL pathway as well as the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, the apoptotic signaling induced by GA was amplified by cross-link between the two pathways. Taken together, our findings may be useful for understanding the mechanism of action of GA on breast cancer cells and provide new insights into the possible application of such compound and its derivatives in breast cancer therapy.Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 05/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor