Anticancer effects of gallic acid isolated from Indonesian herbal medicine, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl, on human cancer cell lines.
ABSTRACT The natural antioxidant gallic acid (GA) was isolated from fruits of a medicinal Indonesian plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. The structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. GA demonstrated a significant inhibition of cell proliferation in a series of cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells (TE-2) but not in non-cancerous cells (CHEK-1). Observation of the molecular mechanism of apoptosis showed that GA up-regulated the pro-apoptosis protein, Bax, and induced caspase-cascade activity in cancer cells. On the other hand, GA down-regulated anti-apoptosis proteins such as Bcl-2 and Xiap. In addition, GA also induced down-regulation of the survival Akt/mTOR pathway. In non-cancerous cells, we observed delayed expression of pro-apoptosis related proteins. Our results suggest that GA might be a potential anticancer compound. However, in depth in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism.
- SourceAvailable from: Mohammed M Ghoneim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phytochemical study of the ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe tomentosa (Crassulaceae) resulted in the isolation of 14 compounds identified as; α-amyrin acetate (1), friedelin (2), glutinol (3), 1-dotriacontanol (4), phytol (5), Stigmasta-7,25-dien-3-ol (6), β-sitosterol (7), Isorhamnetin (8), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl tetradecanoate (9), Eriodictyol (10), Gallic acid (11), quercetin (12), kampferol-3-O-Rutinoside (13) and isovitexin (14). These compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. The structure elucidation of isolated metabolites was carried out using spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR). Antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of different plant extracts were also studied and significant results were obtained.Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research. 01/2015; 3(6):136-140.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An attempt has been made to review some medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in foreign countries. Information on the botanical names of plants with family names, parts used and their main active components, and original/native place of these plants have been collected from the litera-ture. This article considers 62 medicinal plants of for-eign origin. These plants belong to 40 families, and their different parts (root, stem, bark, corm, bulb, leaf, fruit and seed) or the whole plants/herbs are used. The extracts or decoctions of these are generally used. The medicinal plants contain several phyto-chemicals such as vitamins (A, C, E, K), carotenoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, enzymes, minerals, etc. These phytochemi-cals possess antioxidant activities, which prevent or can be used in the treatment of many diseases, includ-ing cancer. Herbal drugs are also known to have good immunomodulatory properties. These act by stimulat-ing both non-specific and specific immunity. Keywords. Anticancer medicinal plants, cancer, foreign origin, phytochemicals. CANCER is the abnormal growth of cells in our bodies that can lead to death. Cancer cells usually invade and destroy normal cells. These cells are born due to imbal-ance in the body and by correcting this imbalance, the cancer may be treated. Billions of dollars have been spent on cancer research and yet we do not understand exactly what cancer is 1 . Every year, millions of people are diagno-sed with cancer, leading to death. According to the American Cancer Society 2 , deaths arising from cancer constitute 2–3% of the annual deaths recorded world-wide. Thus cancer kills about 3500 million people annu-ally all over the world. Several chemopreventive agents are used to treat cancer, but they cause toxicity that pre-vents their usage 3 . Cancer is the second leading cause of death in America. The major causes of cancer are smoking, dietary imbal-ances, hormones and chronic infections leading to chronic inflammation 4 . Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women worldwide 1,5 . Amongst South African women, breast cancer is likely to develop in one out of every 31 women in the country 5 . Colon cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in the US 1 . Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the US, second to skin cancer with an estimated 180,000 new cases and 37,000 deaths ex-pected by American Cancer Society 6 each year. With in-crease in longevity, the disease is going to be a problem even in India. Cancers affecting the digestive tract are among the most common of all the cancers associated with aging. About one out of every 14 men and women in America is diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer at some time in his/her life. Because of high death rate associated with cancer and because of the serious side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, many cancer patients seek alternative and/or complementary methods of treatment. The impor-tant preventive methods for most of the cancers include dietary changes, stopping the use of tobacco products, treating inflammatory diseases effectively, and taking nu-tritional supplements that aid immune functions. Recent researches revolve round the urgency to evolve suitable chemotherapy consistent with new discoveries in cell biology for the treatment of cancer with no toxic effect. Chemotherapy, being a major treatment modality used for the control of advanced stages of malignancies and as a prophylactic against possible metastasis, exhibits severe toxicity on normal tissues 7,8 . Plants have been used for treating various diseases of human beings and animals since time immemorial. They maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also cure diseases, including cancer without causing toxicity. More than 50% of all modern drugs in clinical use are of natural products, many of which have the ability to control cancer cells 9 . According to the estimates of the WHO, more than 80% of people in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their primary health needs. A recent survey shows that more than 60% of cancer patients use vitamins or herbs as therapy 10,11 . Over the past decade, herbal medicines have been accep-ted universally, and they have an impact on both world health and international trade. Hence, medicinal plants continue to play an important role in the healthcare sys-tem of a large number of the world's population 12 . Tradi-tional medicine is widely used in India. Even in USA, use12/2014; 96(25).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent technological advances and the development of new methods has provided an opportunity to obtain highly purified natural bioactive compounds extracts with potential for the treatment and prevention of human diseases. The use of hazardous and toxic solvents in extraction and processing of bioactive compounds from plant materials is considered as a big problem in health, safety and environmental pollution. Advanced technology aims to increase the production of the desired compounds and find an alternative to using toxic solvents in the extraction processes of bioactive compounds from plant materials. The ever growing interest in plant bioactive compounds and today’s conc ern on environment issues have led to an increase need for efficient and green extraction method. This review is focused on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant using advanced and environmental friendly methods such as supercritical fluid extraction method, microwave-assisted extraction method, ultrasound-assisted extraction and similar technique s that can give fast and organic residues free extract. An update overview of the bi oactive compounds present in plant of Phaleria macrocarpa and its extraction, fractionation, purification and isolation are provided. The advantages and disadvantages of both conventional and non-conventional extraction methods are also discussed in this review.Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 11/2014; · 2.49 Impact Factor