Summary statement IV: Obesity and diabetes: opportunities for translation of basic research.
ABSTRACT The worldwide epidemics of obesity and diabetes that have emerged in the 21st century are creating a major public heath problem, having struck developed countries as well as those still developing. With our present clinical tools, abilities, and understanding, we may not be prepared to respond adequately to the demands or be able to engage in effective prevention strategies. The underlying pathophysiological reasons for the increases in both obesity and diabetes may be closely related through abnormality in endothelial cells. Diverse expertise from within and outside the public health arena will be needed to explore the health implications from an "endothelium" perspective and identify those at risk for the development of chronic disease. Identification of new biological markers and better measures of current biological marker will both be critical in understanding and addressing the ongoing epidemic of chronic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Our purpose here is to highlight selected literature published in 2004 on obesity and diabetes that further characterizes these major public health problems. Recent findings: Rates of obesity continue to increase; excessive caloric intake and insufficient vigorous physical activity are important factors for the development of obesity. Both the United States Preventive Services Task Force and the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed recommendations and strategies to deal with obesity. Diabetes rates have also continued to increase. Several risk factors for developing diabetes have been characterized. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among persons with diagnosed diabetes have declined in recent decades and the risk of developing CVD from hyperglycemia has been further characterized. A randomized controlled trial of a lipid-lowering statin in persons with diabetes found it effective in reducing the occurrence of major CVD events as well as mortality. Finally, a common agenda has been developed among three US agencies to enhance efforts in preventing diabetes, cancer, and heart disease. Summary: The dual epidemics of obesity and diabetes are major public health issues that will continue into the future. Policies to detect and address obesity are emerging along with a better understanding of risk factors for the development of diabetes.Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes. 01/2005; Volume 12:174-180.