Article

ADHD and Achievement Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literatures and a Concomitant Study With College Students

University of Delaware, Ньюарк, Delaware, United States
Journal of Learning Disabilities (Impact Factor: 1.9). 02/2007; 40(1):49-65. DOI: 10.1177/00222194070400010401
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article presents results from two interrelated studies. The first study conducted a meta-analysis of the published literature since 1990 to determine the magnitude of achievement problems associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effect sizes were significantly different between participants with and without ADHD (sample weighted r = .32, sample weighted d = . 71; p = .001). Effects were also examined according to the moderators of age, gender, achievement domain (reading, math, spelling), measurement method (standardized tests vs. grades, parent/teacher ratings, etc.), sample type (clinical vs. nonclinical), and system used to identify ADHD (DSM-III-R vs. DSM-IV). Significant differences emerged from the moderator comparisons. The second study, using averaged effect sizes from the first study as a baseline for comparison, investigated achievement levels for an understudied age group with ADHD, namely, college students. Unlike previous studies at the college level, the sample incorporated both student and parent ratings (N = 380 dyads). The results were comparable to outcomes from the meta-analysis for college students and adults. Analyses demonstrated modest (R = .21) but meaningful predictive validity across 1 year to end-of-first-year grades. However, unlike earlier studies with children and adolescents, student ratings were as predictive as parent ratings. Findings are discussed in terms of the impact of moderator variables on ADHD and achievement.

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    • "In einer Längsschnittstudie von Massetti et al. (2008) zeigten Kinder, die im Alter von vier bis sechs Jahren eine ADHS aufwiesen, über sieben Schuljahre hinweg deutlich schwächere Schulleistungen im Vergleich zu Kindern ohne ADHS. Die Gesamtleistung der betroffenen Kinder über alle Schulbereiche hinweg liegt nach den Ergebnissen einer Metaanalyse durchschnittlich d = 0.71 Standardabweichungen unter der von Kindern ohne ADHS, wobei die Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen mit d = 0.73 in den Leseleistungen, mit d = 0.67 in den Mathematikleistungen und mit d = 0.55 in den Rechtschreibleistungen in allen drei Schulleistungsbereichen deutlich ausfielen (Frazier, Youngstrom, Glutting & Watkins, 2007). Ein jüngst erschienenes Review, in dem 17 Studien aus den Jahren 2001 bis 2011 zusammengefasst wurden, macht deutlich, dass bei 8 bis 76 % der Kinder mit ADHS komorbide Lernschwierigkeiten vorliegen, "
    Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 05/2015; 43(3):185-193. DOI:10.1024/1422-4917/a000352 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    • "El libro Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) indica que el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) se caracteriza por un patrón persistente de inatención y/o hiperactividad/impulsividad que interfiere de manera negativa con el desarrollo y el normal funcionamiento de quien lo padece, y del cual aparecen síntomas antes de los 12 años de edad. Este trastorno conlleva serias dificultades tanto en el contexto académico (Barnard-Brak, Sulak, y Fearon, 2011; Frazier, Youngstrom, Gluntting, y Watkins, 2007; Massetti et al., 2008) como en el entorno familiar (Anastopoulos, Sommer, y Schatz, 2009; Schroeder y Kelley, 2009). Por esta razón, resulta fundamental encontrar las estrategias y herramientas más apropiadas para reducir la posibilidad de errores en el proceso de diagnosis (Skounti, Philalithis, y Galanakis, 2007). "
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    • "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) indicates that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity that significantly interferes with functioning and development, with symptoms being present before the age of 12. This disorder leads to serious difficulties in both academic context (Barnard-Brak, Sulak, & Fearon, 2011; Frazier, Youngstrom, Gluntting, & Watkins, 2007, Massetti, et al. 2008) and family environment (Anastopoulos, Sommer, & Schatz, 2009; Schroeder & Kelley, 2009). For this reason, it is essential to find the most appropriate strategies and tools to reduce the possibility of errors in the diagnostic process (Skounti, Philalithis, & Galanakis, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study explores whether a specific cognitive profile for children with ADHD can be obtained through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and whether this profile is capable of differentiating between ADHD clinical subtypes. Method: A control group of 47 children was selected, together with a clinical group of 86 children diagnosed with ADHD and divided into 2 subgroups, according to their clinical characteristics. Results: The clinical group was characterized by a GAI > CPI with respect to the control group. The clinical subgroups did not score significantly lower in any index, but they did in the difference between the working memory index and the processing speed index. For those diagnosed with inattentive ADHD, this distance was positive; for those diagnosed with ADHD combined group, it was negative. Conclusion: These findings contribute empirical evidence to the hypothesis that there is a characteristic ADHD cognitive profile, with a potential ability of differentiating between ADHD clinical subtypes.
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