Mechanisms controlling protein release from lipidic implants: effects of PEG addition.
ABSTRACT Different types of tristearin-based implants for controlled rh-interferon alpha-2a (IFN-alpha) release were prepared by compression and thoroughly characterised in vitro. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was added as a co-lyophilisation agent for protein stabilisation and different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as efficient protein release modifier. To get deeper insight into the underlying mass transport mechanisms, the release of IFN-alpha, HP-beta-CD and PEG into phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was monitored simultaneously and appropriate analytical solutions of Fick's second law of diffusion were fitted to the experimental results. Importantly, the addition of only 5-20% PEG to the lipidic implants significantly altered the resulting protein release rates and the relative importance of the underlying mass transport mechanisms. The release of IFN-alpha from PEG-free implants was purely diffusion controlled. In contrast, in PEG-containing devices other phenomena were also involved in the control of protein release: the IFN-alpha release rate remained about constant over prolonged periods of time and the total amounts of mobile IFN-alpha increased. Interestingly, the release of PEG itself as well as of HP-beta-CD from the implants remained purely diffusion controlled, irrespective of the amount of added PEG. Thus, different mass transport mechanisms govern the release of the drug, co-lyophilisation agent and release modifier out of the lipidic implants.
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ABSTRACT: Somatostatin, a therapeutic peptide with a high therapeutical potential but a very short biological half-live was encapsulated within microparticles by a modified solvent evaporation method and a melt dispersion method without the use of organic solvent. As the use of synthetic polymer matrix materials often goes along with detrimental effects on incorporated peptides, we investigated the potential of physiological lipids such as glyceryl tripalmitate (Dynasan 116) as an alternative matrix material. The two preparation methods were evaluated with respect to surface topography, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro release behavior and modification of the resulting microparticles. Microparticles with a suitable particle size distribution for i.m. or s.c. injection could be prepared with both methods. The encapsulation efficiency of the peptide into glyceryl tripalmitate microparticles was substantially influenced by the preparation method and the physical state of the peptide to be incorporated. The melt dispersion technique and the incorporation of the drug as an aqueous solution gave the best results with actual drug loadings up to 9% and an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 90%. Microparticles prepared by the melt dispersion technique crystallized in the unstable alpha-modification. The peptide was released almost continuously over 10 days with no burst effect, 20-30% of the incorporated somatostatin was not released in the monitored time period.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2001; 218(1-2):133-43. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled dextran (FITC-dextran) loaded biodegradable microspheres were prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) by a modified spray-drying technique. This microencapsulation method was compared with the water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double-emulsion method. As expected, microsphere morphology, particle size and particle size distribution strongly depended on the production process. The spray-drying method was found to have a number of advantages compared to the w/o/w double-emulsion technique. The content of residual dichloromethane (DCM) in the final product was significantly lower in case of the microspheres prepared by spray-drying. Concerning EPO loaded microspheres, spray-drying yielded higher encapsulation efficiencies. Although the microspheres obtained by spray-drying are subjected to intensive mechanical and thermal stress during the preparation, the amount of aggregates of EPO in PLG microspheres were not increased compared to the w/o/w technique. Depending on the manufacturing method, addition of cyclic DL-lactide dimers (referred to as monomers in the following) affected the in vitro release profiles of EPO and FITC-dextran from PLG microspheres. Using differential scanning calorimetry it was shown that these low molecular weight substances only seem to be present inside the microspheres produced by spray-drying. DL-Lactide significantly reduced the initial burst release of both EPO and FITC-dextran. While the following release period of EPO was not affected by the DL-lactide content, a more linear FITC-dextran release pattern could be achieved. It can be concluded that the spray-drying technique provides a number of advantages compared to the w/o/w method. The modulation of protein release using low molecular weight additives is of particular interest for parenteral depot systems.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 06/1998; 45(3):295-305. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monolithic lipid matrices were developed that allow parenteral drug release for days, weeks or even months. The cylindrical matrices consist of triglycerides or triglyceride/cholesterol mixtures and allow, due to their small dimensions, an application via injection. Pure triglyceride matrices showed less than 3%, triglyceride matrices containing 70% and more cholesterol less than 10% water uptake over 30 weeks. This swelling behavior would allow the use of such matrices even for sophisticated applications such as interstitial drug delivery to the brain where excessive swelling is highly undesirable. The drug release kinetics were found to depend strongly on the fatty acid chain length of the triglyceride and the cholesterol content of the matrices. Increasing the chain length from C(12) to C(18) allowed an increase in the release of pyranine, a low molecular weight model compound, from approx. 60 days to more than 120 days. Adding cholesterol to glyceryl trimyristate matrices made it possible to adjust the release within a time span varying from days to weeks. While matrices containing 50% cholesterol released pyranine within 8 days, cholesterol contents of 90% allowed a release of the dye for more than 3 weeks.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 02/2003; 55(1):133-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor