Adjuvant effect of green propolis on humoral immune response of bovines immunized with bovine herpesvirus type 5.
ABSTRACT Despite recent technological advances in vaccine production, most vaccines depend on the association with adjuvant substances. In this study, propolis, which has been attracting the attention of researchers due to its bioactive properties, was evaluated as an immunological adjuvant. The association of 40mg/dose of an ethanolic extract of green propolis with an inactivated oil vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), resulted in a significant increase (P<0.01) in the neutralizing antibody levels, comparing to the bovines that received the same vaccine without propolis. Besides, propolis increased the percentage of animals with high antibody titers (above 32). Phenolic compounds such as artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the derivatives of cinnamic acid besides other flavonoid substances were abundant in the propolis extract used, and they could be the main substances with adjuvant action. The effect of the green propolis extract on the humoral immune response can be exploited in the development of new vaccines.
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ABSTRACT: The phytochemical investigation of a sample of propolis from Passa Quatro-Minas Gerais State, Brazil, where nine constituents were isolated: a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, lupeol, a mixture of flavonols ramnocitrin and eupalitin, acacetin, 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid the new compound, the (E)-3-[4-(3-phenylpropanoiloxy)]-3,5-diprenil-cinnamic acid. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, MS and IR spectrometry, and comparison with data described in the literature.Química Nova 12/2009; 33(10):2051-2054. DOI:10.1590/S0100-40422010001000009 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for attachment and penetration of Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) into permissive cells, and is a major target of the host immune system, inducing strong humoral and cellular immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate in mice the immunogenicity of recombinant BoHV-5 gD (rgD5) expressed in Pichia pastoris. Vaccines formulated with rgD5 alone or adjuvanted with Montanide 50 ISA V2; Emulsigen or Emulsigen-DDA was administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Almost all formulations stimulated a humoral immune response after the first inoculation. The only exception was observed when the rgD5 was administered subcutaneously without adjuvant, in this case, the antibodies were observed after three doses. Higher titers of neutralizing antibodies were obtained with the three oil-based adjuvant formulations when compared to non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations. The rgD5 vaccine stimulated high mRNA expression levels of Th1 (INF-γ) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, GM-CSF). The results demonstrated that the recombinant gD from BoHV-5 conserved important epitopes for viral neutralization from native BoHV-5 gD and was able to elicit mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in mice.Vaccine 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.011 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the wide current use of praziquantel (PZQ) in treatment of schistosomiasis, low cure rates have been recorded in many studies. The aim of this study was directed to evaluate the curative effect of propolis (Pps) alone or in combination with PZQ on biochemical, immunological, parasitological, and histological changes associated with experimental schistosomiasis in mice. Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were divided into two experimental sets, each with four subgroups: (i) untreated, (ii) treated with Pps/day p.o for 4 weeks, (iii) treated with PZQ p.o 2 × 500 mg/kg bd wt, and (iv) treated with Pps + PZQ as in group ii and iii; all treatments started on the 8th week postinfection, in addition to uninfected group as control for the previous groups. Treatment of infected mice with Pps, although failed to eradicate the worm, significantly reduced the hepatic granuloma number, their lymphocytic infiltration and aggregation, hepatic and splenic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and plasma, and liver and thymus nitric oxide (NOx) levels together with normalization of plasma proteins and alleviation of oxidative stress in the examined tissues as evidenced by reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and normalization of glutathione (GSH). Promising results were obtained when Pps was given in combination with PZQ, where the anti-schistosomal activity of PZQ was markedly potentiated with complete alleviation and amelioration of the histological and biochemical alteration associated with schistosomiasis. This study highlights the potential usefulness of Pps as an adjunct to PZQ in schistosomiasis.Parasitology Research 10/2014; 113(12). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-4141-0 · 2.33 Impact Factor