Adjuvant effect of green propolis on humoral immune response of bovines immunized with bovine herpesvirus type 5.
ABSTRACT Despite recent technological advances in vaccine production, most vaccines depend on the association with adjuvant substances. In this study, propolis, which has been attracting the attention of researchers due to its bioactive properties, was evaluated as an immunological adjuvant. The association of 40mg/dose of an ethanolic extract of green propolis with an inactivated oil vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), resulted in a significant increase (P<0.01) in the neutralizing antibody levels, comparing to the bovines that received the same vaccine without propolis. Besides, propolis increased the percentage of animals with high antibody titers (above 32). Phenolic compounds such as artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the derivatives of cinnamic acid besides other flavonoid substances were abundant in the propolis extract used, and they could be the main substances with adjuvant action. The effect of the green propolis extract on the humoral immune response can be exploited in the development of new vaccines.
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Dataset: 2nd manuscript of propolis 2013
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ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to study the protective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis given subcutaneously (S/C) either alone or in combination with inactivated formalized Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) vaccine in rabbits challenged with virulent P. multocida strain. Twenty-eight New-Zealand rabbits, 6-8 weeks old and not vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1) was kept as nonvaccinated control. Group (2) was injected S/C with propolis. Group (3) was vaccinated (S/C) with P. multocida vaccine only. Group (4) was injected with vaccine mixed with propolis as adjuvant. Groups (2, 3, and 4) received the same doses of propolis and vaccine after 4 weeks as a booster dose. The experiment continued for six weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks of treatment for evaluating the erythrogram and biochemical parameters. At the end of six weeks, all groups were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of P. multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological investigation. Results showed that before challenge all rabbits of different groups were apparently healthy and had good appetite. After challenge, control group (1) showed acute form of the disease, 100% mortality rate, and severe histopathological changes. Rabbits of groups (2 and 3) showed less severe clinical signs, mortality rate, and histopathological changes than control. Rabbits of group (4) were apparently healthy with normal histological picture. In conclusion, an ethanolic extract of propolis injected alone or combined with formalized inactivated P. multocida vaccine improved general health conditions, liver and kidney functions in addition to reduction of the severity of adverse clinical signs, mortality rates, and histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with P. multocida strain.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:163724.
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ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for attachment and penetration of Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) into permissive cells, and is a major target of the host immune system, inducing strong humoral and cellular immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate in mice the immunogenicity of recombinant BoHV-5 gD (rgD5) expressed in Pichia pastoris. Vaccines formulated with rgD5 alone or adjuvanted with Montanide 50 ISA V2; Emulsigen or Emulsigen-DDA was administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Almost all formulations stimulated a humoral immune response after the first inoculation. The only exception was observed when the rgD5 was administered subcutaneously without adjuvant, in this case, the antibodies were observed after three doses. Higher titers of neutralizing antibodies were obtained with the three oil-based adjuvant formulations when compared to non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations. The rgD5 vaccine stimulated high mRNA expression levels of Th1 (INF-γ) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, GM-CSF). The results demonstrated that the recombinant gD from BoHV-5 conserved important epitopes for viral neutralization from native BoHV-5 gD and was able to elicit mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in mice.Vaccine 03/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor