Adjuvant effect of green propolis on humoral immune response of bovines immunized with bovine herpesvirus type 5
ABSTRACT Despite recent technological advances in vaccine production, most vaccines depend on the association with adjuvant substances. In this study, propolis, which has been attracting the attention of researchers due to its bioactive properties, was evaluated as an immunological adjuvant. The association of 40mg/dose of an ethanolic extract of green propolis with an inactivated oil vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), resulted in a significant increase (P<0.01) in the neutralizing antibody levels, comparing to the bovines that received the same vaccine without propolis. Besides, propolis increased the percentage of animals with high antibody titers (above 32). Phenolic compounds such as artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the derivatives of cinnamic acid besides other flavonoid substances were abundant in the propolis extract used, and they could be the main substances with adjuvant action. The effect of the green propolis extract on the humoral immune response can be exploited in the development of new vaccines.
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DESCRIPTION: Bees are arthropods of Hymenoptera order and are classified into two groups based on their type of life: solitary and social life. Propolis is produced by bees that live socially, from the harvesting of products derived from plants and used to seal and protect the hive against intruders and natural phenomena . Propolis term derives from the Greek Pro, "opposite, the entry" and polis, "city or community" [2,3]. Propolis is a natural substance collected by Apis mellifera bees in several plant species. It has been used in folk medicine for centuries [2,4]. Characteristically, it is a lipophilic material, hard and brittle when cold, but soft, flexible and very sticky when warm. Hence the name "beeswax" . It has characteristic odor and shows adhesive properties of oils and interact strongly with skin proteins . The composition of propolis is complex [7,8].
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ABSTRACT: The phytochemical investigation of a sample of propolis from Passa Quatro-Minas Gerais State, Brazil, where nine constituents were isolated: a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, lupeol, a mixture of flavonols ramnocitrin and eupalitin, acacetin, 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid the new compound, the (E)-3-[4-(3-phenylpropanoiloxy)]-3,5-diprenil-cinnamic acid. The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, MS and IR spectrometry, and comparison with data described in the literature.Química Nova 12/2009; 33(10):2051-2054. DOI:10.1590/S0100-40422010001000009 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the wide current use of praziquantel (PZQ) in treatment of schistosomiasis, low cure rates have been recorded in many studies. The aim of this study was directed to evaluate the curative effect of propolis (Pps) alone or in combination with PZQ on biochemical, immunological, parasitological, and histological changes associated with experimental schistosomiasis in mice. Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were divided into two experimental sets, each with four subgroups: (i) untreated, (ii) treated with Pps/day p.o for 4 weeks, (iii) treated with PZQ p.o 2 × 500 mg/kg bd wt, and (iv) treated with Pps + PZQ as in group ii and iii; all treatments started on the 8th week postinfection, in addition to uninfected group as control for the previous groups. Treatment of infected mice with Pps, although failed to eradicate the worm, significantly reduced the hepatic granuloma number, their lymphocytic infiltration and aggregation, hepatic and splenic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and plasma, and liver and thymus nitric oxide (NOx) levels together with normalization of plasma proteins and alleviation of oxidative stress in the examined tissues as evidenced by reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and normalization of glutathione (GSH). Promising results were obtained when Pps was given in combination with PZQ, where the anti-schistosomal activity of PZQ was markedly potentiated with complete alleviation and amelioration of the histological and biochemical alteration associated with schistosomiasis. This study highlights the potential usefulness of Pps as an adjunct to PZQ in schistosomiasis.Parasitology Research 10/2014; 113(12). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-4141-0 · 2.33 Impact Factor