Adjuvant effect of green propolis on humoral immune response of bovines immunized with bovine herpesvirus type 5

Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitário, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (Impact Factor: 1.75). 03/2007; 116(1-2):79-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.01.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite recent technological advances in vaccine production, most vaccines depend on the association with adjuvant substances. In this study, propolis, which has been attracting the attention of researchers due to its bioactive properties, was evaluated as an immunological adjuvant. The association of 40mg/dose of an ethanolic extract of green propolis with an inactivated oil vaccine against bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), resulted in a significant increase (P<0.01) in the neutralizing antibody levels, comparing to the bovines that received the same vaccine without propolis. Besides, propolis increased the percentage of animals with high antibody titers (above 32). Phenolic compounds such as artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the derivatives of cinnamic acid besides other flavonoid substances were abundant in the propolis extract used, and they could be the main substances with adjuvant action. The effect of the green propolis extract on the humoral immune response can be exploited in the development of new vaccines.

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    DESCRIPTION: Bees are arthropods of Hymenoptera order and are classified into two groups based on their type of life: solitary and social life. Propolis is produced by bees that live socially, from the harvesting of products derived from plants and used to seal and protect the hive against intruders and natural phenomena [1]. Propolis term derives from the Greek Pro, "opposite, the entry" and polis, "city or community" [2,3]. Propolis is a natural substance collected by Apis mellifera bees in several plant species. It has been used in folk medicine for centuries [2,4]. Characteristically, it is a lipophilic material, hard and brittle when cold, but soft, flexible and very sticky when warm. Hence the name "beeswax" [5]. It has characteristic odor and shows adhesive properties of oils and interact strongly with skin proteins [6]. The composition of propolis is complex [7,8].
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