PPARdelta, but not PPARalpha, activates PGC-1alpha gene transcription in muscle.
ABSTRACT PGC-1alpha induces mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle and its activity has been related to insulin sensitization. Here, we report that fibrates induce PGC-1alpha gene expression in muscle both in vivo and in vitro. However, only activation via PPARdelta but not PPARalpha underlies this effect. PPARdelta induces PGC-1alpha gene transcription through a PPAR-response element in the PGC-1alpha promoter. Moreover, PGC-1alpha coactivates the PPARdelta-responsiveness of its own gene. A further positive autoregulatory loop of control relies on the induction of PPARdelta expression by PGC-1alpha. These data point to a distinct value of PPARdelta rather than PPARalpha agonists in the improvement of oxidative metabolism in muscle.
- SourceAvailable from: Martin Ridderstråle[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genetic and environmental factors contribute to age-dependent susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have reported reduced expression of PPARgamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PGC-1beta genes in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients, but it is not known whether this is an inherited or acquired defect. To address this question we studied expression of these genes in muscle biopsies obtained from young and elderly dizygotic and monozygotic twins without known diabetes before and after insulin stimulation and related the expression to a Gly482Ser variant in the PGC-1alpha gene. Insulin increased and aging reduced skeletal muscle PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta mRNA levels. This age-dependent decrease in muscle gene expression was partially heritable and influenced by the PGC-1alpha Gly482Ser polymorphism. In addition, sex, birth weight, and aerobic capacity influenced expression of PGC-1alpha in a complex fashion. Whereas expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle was positively related to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, PGC-1beta expression was positively related to fat oxidation and nonoxidative glucose metabolism. We conclude that skeletal muscle PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta expression are stimulated by insulin and reduced by aging. The data also suggest different regulatory functions for PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta on glucose and fat oxidation in muscle cells. The finding that the age-dependent decrease in the expression of these key genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation is under genetic control could provide an explanation by which an environmental trigger (age) modifies genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/2004; 114(10):1518-26. · 12.81 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adaptive thermogenesis is an important component of energy homeostasis and a metabolic defense against obesity. We have cloned a novel transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, termed PGC-1, from a brown fat cDNA library. PGC-1 mRNA expression is dramatically elevated upon cold exposure of mice in both brown fat and skeletal muscle, key thermogenic tissues. PGC-1 greatly increases the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma and the thyroid hormone receptor on the uncoupling protein (UCP-1) promoter. Ectopic expression of PGC-1 in white adipose cells activates expression of UCP-1 and key mitochondrial enzymes of the respiratory chain, and increases the cellular content of mitochondrial DNA. These results indicate that PGC-1 plays a key role in linking nuclear receptors to the transcriptional program of adaptive thermogenesis.Cell 03/1998; 92(6):829-39. · 31.96 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mice in which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta) is selectively ablated in skeletal muscle myocytes were generated to elucidate the role played by PPARbeta signaling in these myocytes. These somatic mutant mice exhibited a muscle fiber-type switching toward lower oxidative capacity that preceded the development of obesity and diabetes, thus demonstrating that PPARbeta is instrumental in myocytes to the maintenance of oxidative fibers and that fiber-type switching is likely to be the cause and not the consequence of these metabolic disorders. We also show that PPARbeta stimulates in myocytes the expression of PGC1alpha, a coactivator of various transcription factors, known to play an important role in slow muscle fiber formation. Moreover, as the PGC1alpha promoter contains a PPAR response element, the effect of PPARbeta on the formation and/or maintenance of slow muscle fibers can be ascribed, at least in part, to a stimulation of PGC1alpha expression at the transcriptional level.Cell Metabolism 12/2006; 4(5):407-14. · 14.62 Impact Factor