Alterations in linker flexibility suppress DNA topoisomerase I mutant-induced cell lethality.
ABSTRACT Eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I (Top1p) catalyzes changes in DNA topology via the formation of a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate, which is reversibly stabilized by the anticancer agent camptothecin (CPT). Crystallographic studies of the 70-kDa C terminus of human Top1p bound to duplex DNA describe a monomeric protein clamp circumscribing the DNA helix. The structures, which lack the N-terminal domain, comprise the conserved clamp, an extended linker domain, and the conserved C-terminal active site Tyr domain. CPT bound to the covalent Top1p-DNA complex limits linker flexibility, allowing structural determination of this domain. We previously reported that mutation of Ala(653) to Pro in the linker increases the rate of enzyme-catalyzed DNA religation, thereby rendering Top1A653Pp resistant to CPT (Fiorani, P., Bruselles, A., Falconi, M., Chillemi, G., Desideri, A., and Benedetti P. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 43268-43275). Molecular dynamics studies suggested mutation-induced increases in linker flexibility alter Top1p catalyzed DNA religation. To address the functional consequences of linker flexibility on enzyme catalysis and drug sensitivity, we investigated the interactions of the A653P linker mutation with a self-poisoning T718A mutation within the active site of Top1p. The A653P mutation suppressed the lethal phenotype of Top1T718Ap in yeast, yet did not restore enzyme sensitivity to CPT. However, the specific activity of the double mutant was decreased in vivo and in vitro, consistent with a decrease in DNA binding. These findings support a model where changes in the flexibility or orientation of the linker alter the geometry of the active site and thereby the kinetics of DNA cleavage/religation catalyzed by Top1p.
Article: A single mutation in the 729 residue modulates human DNA topoisomerase IB DNA binding and drug resistance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human DNA topoisomerase I (hTop1p) catalyzes the relaxation of supercoiled DNA and constitutes the cellular target of the antitumor drug camptothecin (CPT). The X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme covalently joined to DNA and bound to the CPT analog Topotecan suggests that there are two classes of mutations that can produce a CPT-resistant enzyme. The first class includes changes in residues that directly interact with the drug, whereas a second class alters interactions with the DNA and thereby destabilizes the drug binding site. The Thr729Ala, that is part of a hydrophobic pocket in the enzyme C-terminal domain, belongs to a third group of mutations that confer CPT resistance, but do not interact directly with the drug or the DNA. To understand the contribution of this residue in drug resistance, we have studied the effect on hTop1p catalysis and CPT sensitivity of four different substitutions in the Thr729 position (Thr729Ala, Thr729Glu, Thr729Lys and Thr729Pro). Tht729Glu and Thr729Lys mutants show severe CPT resistance and furthermore, Thr729Glu shows a remarkable defect in DNA binding. We postulate that the maintenance of the hydrophobic pocket integrity, where Thr729 is positioned, is crucial for drug sensitivity and DNA binding.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2008; 36(17):5635-44. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Evidence of the crucial role of the linker domain on the catalytic activity of human topoisomerase I by experimental and simulative characterization of the Lys681Ala mutant.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The functional and structural-dynamical properties of the Lys681Ala mutation in the human topoisomerase IB linker domain have been investigated by catalytic assays and molecular dynamics simulation. The mutant is characterized by a comparable cleavage and a strongly reduced religation rate when compared to the wild type protein. The mutant also displays perturbed linker dynamics, as shown by analysis of the principal components of the motion, and a reduced electrostatic interaction with DNA. Inspection of the inter atomic distances in proximity of the active site shows that in the mutant the distance between the amino group of Lys532 side chain and the 5' OH of the scissile phosphate is longer than the wild type enzyme, providing an atomic explanation for the reduced religation rate of the mutant. Taken together these results indicate the existence of a long range communication between the linker domain and the active site region and points out the crucial role of the linker in the modulation of the catalytic activity.Nucleic Acids Research 09/2009; 37(20):6849-58. · 8.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Topoisomerase I (TOP1) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during DNA replication and transcription. TOP1 is the molecular target of camptothecin and related drugs such as irinotecan and SN38 (irinotecan's active metabolite). Irinotecan is widely used as an anti-cancer agent in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. However, its efficacy is often limited by the development of resistance. We previously established several SN38 resistant HCT116-derived clones to study the mechanisms underlying resistance to SN38. Here, we investigated whether resistance to SN38 in these cell lines could be linked to the presence of TOP1 mutations and changes in its expression and activity. Functional analyses were performed on these cell lines challenged with SN38 and we specifically monitored the double strands breaks with γH2AX staining and replication activity with molecular combing. In SN38 resistant HCT116 clones we identified three new TOP1 mutations, which are located in the core subdomain III (p.R621H and p.L617I) and in the linker domain (p.E710G) and are packed together at the interface between these two domains. The presence of these TOP1 mutations in SN38 resistant HCT116 cells did not modify TOP1 expression or intrinsic activity. Conversely, following challenge with SN38, we observed a decrease of TOP1-DNA cleavage complexes and a reduction in double-stranded break formation). In addition, we showed that SN38 resistant HCT116 cells present a strong decrease in the SN38-dependent asymmetry of replication forks that is characteristic of SN38 sensitive HCT116 cells. These results indicate that the TOP1 mutations are involved in the development of SN38 resistance. We hypothesize that p.L617, p.R621 and p.E710 TOP1 residues are important for the functionality of the linker and that mutation of one of these residues is sufficient to alter or modulate its flexibility. Consequently, linker fluctuations could have an impact on SN38 binding by reducing the enzyme affinity for the drug.Molecular Cancer 01/2011; 10:64. · 3.99 Impact Factor