GH3-mediated auxin homeostasis links growth regulation with stress adaptation response in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT Plants constantly monitor environmental fluctuations to optimize their growth and metabolism. One example is adaptive growth occurring in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we demonstrate that GH3-mediated auxin homeostasis is an essential constituent of the complex network of auxin actions that regulates stress adaptation responses in Arabidopsis. Endogenous auxin pool is regulated, at least in part, through negative feedback by a group of auxin-inducible GH3 genes encoding auxin-conjugating enzymes. An Arabidopsis mutant, wes1-D, in which a GH3 gene WES1 is activated by nearby insertion of the (35)S enhancer, exhibited auxin-deficient traits, including reduced growth and altered leaf shape. Interestingly, WES1 is also induced by various stress conditions as well as by salicylic acid and abscisic acid. Accordingly, wes1-D was resistant to both biotic and abiotic stresses, and stress-responsive genes, such as pathogenesis-related genes and CBF genes, were upregulated in this mutant. In contrast, a T-DNA insertional mutant showed reduced stress resistance. We therefore propose that GH3-mediated growth suppression directs reallocation of metabolic resources to resistance establishment and represents the fitness costs of induced resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome.PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10(10):e1004443. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cross-talk between plant disease resistance and development is fundamental to understanding systemic physiological processes during pathogen attack. Our previous study showed that the Arabidopsis GH3.5 gene acts as a bifunctional modulator of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance and the auxin-mediated susceptibility during the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae interaction as well as development. Here, we further study the role and mechanism of GH3.5 involved in the SA-dependent defense pathway. Transcript and histochemical analysis of the GH3.5 promoter::GUS reporter expression indicate that GH3.5 is expressed with a strong temporal and spatial manner with predominant expression in the divisional tissues. Upon bacterial challenge, GUS activity is induced in the junction tissue around the infiltrated zone with higher levels in the vasculature with a pattern different between the incompatible and compatible interactions. Exogenous SA application enhances disease resistance in the activation-tagged mutant gh3.5-1D, while the GH3.5-mediated defense enhancement is depleted in the SA deficient gh3.5-1D/NahG double mutant, indicating that GH3.5 modulates defense response through the SA-dependent pathway. Furthermore, bacterial growth in the gh3.5-1D/npr1 double mutant treated with SA indicates that GH3.5 enhances the SA-mediated defense response through both NPR1-dependent and independent pathways.Plant signaling & behavior 08/2008; 3(8):537-542.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid (5 mM) on some physiological parameters and three hormones (auxin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid) was determined under heat stress (40 °C) in maize tolerant cv. (MAY 69) and sensitive cv. SHEMAL (SH) at 0 h, 4 h and 8 h. Heat stress reduced total chlorophyll content (CHL), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) in SH but did not lead to changes in MAY 69 at 4 h and 8 h. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased (CHL), (RWC) and (gs) in SH under heat stress while it reduced MDA content significantly in both cv. We also observed that heat stress led to a reduction in SA level but increased ABA and IAA levels in SH, whereas it increased SA and IAA levels but did not change ABA level in MAY 69 at 4 h. Furthermore, in SH, ASC application under heat stress increased SA level and decreased IAA and ABA levels at 4 h, but it had no effect on SA and ABA at 8 h.Acta Biologica Hungarica 12/2014; 65(4):469-80. · 0.56 Impact Factor